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TEXT 8. Sport

Sport is probably as old as the humanity itself. It has been developing with the developing and growth of the mankind. All over the world people of different ages are very fond of sports and games. Sport not only helps people to become strong and to develop physically but also makes them more organized and better disciplined in their daily activities. It makes for a healthy mind in a healthy body. Sports help people to keep in good health. Millions of people all over the world are fond of sports and games. Sport helps people to stay in good shape, keeps them fit, healthy and makes them more organized and better disciplined in their daily activities. We have always paid great attention to sport in our schools, colleges and universities. You can hardly find a school without a gym or a sports ground. Every city and town has a few stadiums or swimming pools where local competitions are usually held. We all need to exercise. Even if you don't plan to make a career in sport you still have to practice. Regular exercises give you more energy. That is why many people who suffer from general tiredness should take more exercise than more rest. Exercise makes you feel and look better. The best exer­cise is one which involves in repeated movements, those are: walking, jogging or swimming. Bending and stretching will add flexibility and feeling of lightness.

Among the sports popular in our country are football, bas­ketball, swimming, volleyball, ice hockey, tennis, gymnastics, and figure skating. A person can choose sports and games for any season, for any taste.

It’s been a tradition in this country to divide sport into professional and amateur. There are different sporting societies and clubs in Russia. Many of them take part in different international tournaments and are known all over the world. A great number of world records have been set by Russian sportsmen: gymnasts, weightlifters, tennis players, swimmers, figure skaters, runners, high jumpers. Our sportsmen also participate in the Olympic Games and always win a lot of gold, silver and bronze medals. There are also a lot of amateur clubs and keep-fit centers in Russia where people go in for aerobics, yoga, body-building, swimming, skating, jogging. Thousands of people go to the stadiums to support their favourite team and many-many thousands more prefer to watch the games on TV. But watching sports events and going in for sports are two different things.

My favourite kind of sport is tennis. I've been playing it since I was eleven years old, and the more I play it the more I like it. There is a good tennis court not far from my house and whenever I have a chance I go there with a friend of mine.

Questions:

1. Why is sport so important in our life? Why do people go in for sports?

2. Was there a gym or a sports ground in your school?

3. What professional sporting societies or clubs do you know?

4. Are there any keep-fit centers in your neighborhood? Do you do there?

5. Do you go in for sports or do you prefect to watch other people playing?

6. What team are you a fan of?

7. What is your favorite kind of sport?

8. How long have you been playing it?

9. Do you take part in competitions?



10. What games are popular in Russia?

Sport in Great Britain

Sport plays such a large part in British life that many idi­oms in the English language have come from the world of sport. For example, «that's not cricket» means «that's not fair» and «to play the game » means «to be fair ». The most popular sport in England is football. A lot of people support their local clubs at matches on Saturday afternoons or watch the matches on television. The football league in England and Wales has four divi­sions. Each division contains twenty teams. There are two main prizes each season. The football league championship is won by the team that is top of the first division. The final of this competition takes place every May at the famous Wimble sta­dium in London. Some of the best-known clubs in England are Manchester United, Liverpool and Arsenal. But many clubs have problems with money at the moment. Some people say that the league is too big and that the players get paid too much. Others say that television is making the crowds stay at home. Sport has for a long time been a very important part of a child's education in Britain, not just — as you may think to develop physical abilities, but also to provide a certain kind of moral education. The British have a reputation for being mad about sports. In fact they like watching sports more than playing them. The British are spectators and the most popular spectator sports are cricket and football. Football is the most popular game. Football, or soccer, is an example of a professional game. The game of football was first played in Britain, and later people began to play football in other countries. There are many amateur soccer players in Britain who play the game on Saturday or Sunday afternoon. Amateur clubs often play against professionals. Football is the favourite winter game in Britain and cri­cket is the favourite summer sport. Amateur cricket has the same rules as the professional game. A typical amateur cri­cket match takes place on a village green, an open space in the centre of the village. It is played between two teams — the «home» team and the «visitors» who come from another vil­lage. Football, also called soccer, is the most popular sport in the United Kingdom. England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland have their own Football Leagues and national teams. Games are played on Saturday afternoons from August to April. In addition to the FL games there is a competition called the Football Association Cup. The Cup Final is played at Wimble Stadium (London) in May.

Cricket is considered to be the English National game. Its rules are very complicated. It is played by two teams of eleven men each; the player at a time tries to hit the ball with a bat.

Rugby is another popular British sport which is played in other countries. It is also called rugby football. The story is told that in 1823 boys at Rugby school in England were play­ing football in the normal way, when suddenly one boy picked the ball up and ran with it. That was how a new game was born. There are two forms of rugby football: the amateur game and the professional game. The two games have different rules.

Golf is the Scottish national game. It originated in the 15th century and the most famous golf course in the world, known as the Royal and Ancient Club, is at St. Andrew's.

Lawn tennis was first played in Britain in the late 19th cen­tury. The most famous British championship is Wimbledon, played annually during the last week of June and the first week of July. Those are the most popular kinds of sport in the UK. But there are many other sports such as rugby, swimming, golf, horse-racing and the traditional fox-hunting.

Questions:

1. What reputation do the British have?

2. What is the most popular game in Britain?

3. Where was the game of football first played?

4. When do amateur soccer players play in Britain?

5. What can every boy in Britain tell you?

6. How was rugby born?

7. What is the favourite summer sport?

8. Where does a typical cricket match take place?

9. Are British fond of sports?

10. When and where is the Football Association Cup final played?

Sport in the USA

Americans play tennis, hockey and most other internatio­nal sports but they do not play football in the same way as the rest of the world. The players can run with the ball, touch and push each other. Players wear special clothes for American football with helmets on their heads, because the game can be dangerous. Like international football teams, American teams have eleven players. The field looks different and even the ball is a different shape. American football is very different game. American football derives from the English game of rug­by. It started at Harvard University in the 1870's. It is a game for two teams of eleven men on the field. The object of the game is to have the control of the ball and to score points by carry­ing it across the goal-line. Americans love winter sports and ice hockey is the most popular game. This game is very fast and can be dangerous. Baseball is the most popular summer sport in America. The first American baseball match was in 1839 in New York. To play baseball you need two teams of nine players. Americans start playing baseball young. There are «leagues» which chil­dren of eight can join. The top players become big stars and earn a lot of money every year. Americans' interest in sports seems excessive to many fo­reign visitors. Television networks spend millions of dollars arranging to telecast sports events. Publications about sports are sold widely. In the US professional athletes can become na­tional heroes. Sports are associated with educational institutions in a way which is unique. High schools have coaches as faculty mem­bers, and school teams compete with each other.

Nowhere else in the world are sports associated with col­leges and universities in the way they are in the States. Col­lege sports, especially football, are conducted in an atmosphere of intense excitement and pageantry. Games between teams attract nationwide television audiences. The sport that is most popular in most parts of the world — soccer — is not well known in the US. The most popular sports are football and baseball, games that are not played in large number of countries.

Baseball is a teamgame derived from the English game of cricket. It is played with a bat and ball by two teams of nine players each, on a field with four bases. Baseball is the natio­nal game in the USA and it is very popular in Canada too.

Basketball is a game which nowadays is popular all over the world. It was invented in 1891. During the 20's the first US league championship was organized. In the 70's the Ame­rican Championship was divided into two leagues: the ABA (American Basketball Association), which does not exist any longer and which played with a blue, red and white ball and the NBA (National Basketball Association). The NBA is a professional league which still plays.

Sports play such an important role in American life that the sociology of sports, sports medicine, and sports psycholo­gy have become respectable specializations. Many Americans jog every day, or play tennis or bridge two or three times a week. They go on ski trips and hunting expeditions that require weeks of planning and organizing. In the Americans' view, all these activities are worth the discom­fort they may cause because they contribute to health and phy­sical fitness. That is probably why Americans are known as a healthy nation.

 

Questions:

1. Describe the way Americans play football.

2. Do Americans love winter sports?

3. How many people are there in a basketball team?

4. When did American baseball match first take place?

5. What do you need to play baseball?

6. Are there sport teams in high schools?

7. Are there any coaches in the faculty?

8. What are the most popular sports in the USA?

9. What specializations have become respectable thanks sport?

10. Why do Americans spend so much time on sport activi­ties?

Vocabulary:

humanity человечество

activity деятельность

to make for способствовать

health здоровье

to exercise упражняться

tiredness усталость

flexibility гибкость

to support поддерживать

local местный

league лига

loyalty преданность

reputation репутация

to be mad about быть без ума от...

soccer футбол

amateur любитель

rugby регби

rules правила

village green деревенская лужайка

contest соревнования, состязания

tournament турнир

team команда

a visit team команда гостей

a home team команда хозяев поля

a national team сборная команда

a team victory командная победа

an individual victory личная победа

perform выступать (на соревнованиях)

performance выступление

full of surprises полон неожиданностей

defeat нанести поражение

to suffer a defeat потерпеть поражение

(far) below one's best (намного) ниже своих возможностей

to do one's best лучше своих возможностей

find sport a great help in smth. считать, что спорт помогает в...

gymnastic гимнастика

swimming плавание

athletic атлетика

fencing фехтование

chess шахматы

hockey хоккей

football футбол

basketball баскетбол

volleyball волейбол

cycle велосипед

badminton бадминтон

table-tennis настольный теннис

calisthenics художественная гимнастика

to be well-ordered быть хорошо-организованным

to be technically skilled быть технически сильным

final(s) финал

semi-final(s) полу-финал

quarter-final(s) четверть финала

to place high hopes on возлагать высокие надежды на...

his success/result speaks for itself его успех, результат говорит сам за себя

to be/keep fit хорошо себя чувствовать

injure получить травму

injury травма

to drop out of выбыть из (соревнований)

quality for выйти в финал

to set a record установить рекорд

to beat a record/break a record побить рекорд

ground футбольная команда, стадион

defence защита

defender защитник

attack нападение, атака

attacking атакующий

goalkeeper вратарь

forward нападающий

center-forward центральный нападающий

goal гол, ворота

score счет

what's the score? - 6:4 (six to four) какой счет?

to change the score изменить счет

to equalize the score сравнять счет

to score a goal забить гол

shoot с силой послать мяч

shot удар

penalty kick штрафной удар

miss промахнуться, не попасть

in one's favour в чью-то пользу

draw ничья

to play for a victory играть ради победы

to play for a draw играть в ничью

versus против

put up a good show выступить хорошо

take the lead выйти вперед

lose the lead отставать

newcomer новичок

veteran ветеран

play on a par with играть на равных с...

replace заменить

replacement замена

to play a man short играть в меньшинстве

period период

referee судья

Dialogue:

- What's your favourite sport, Andrew?

- Well, I like most sports, but I suppose I like football most of all. Like most people.

- Yes, I suppose football is the most popular sport. Personally, I don't like football. I don't enjoy competitive sports. I like cycling and horse riding.

- Isn't horse riding very expensive?

- Yes, it's more expensive than cycling.

- I think, horse riding is the most expensive sport. What do you think is the most tiring sport?

- Well, horse riding is very tiring.

- Do you think it's more tiring than, say, tennis?

- Oh, yes. I'm exhausted after I've been horse riding. What about you?

- Well, for me tennis is the most tiring. What do you think is the most dangerous sport?

- I think hang gliding is very dangerous.

- Well, that's what many people think. But you know, there are more accidents to do with windsurfing than there are with hang gliding.

- I didn't know that. Which is the most difficult sport, in your opinion?

- How about climbing? I think climbing is very hard.

- Well, I think skiing is more difficult than climbing.

- No, I don't agree. Climbing looks incredibly difficult.

- And what do you think is the most exciting sport?

- Well, tennis, I think. What about you?

- It has to be motor racing. Motor racing is the most exciting sport for me.

Translate into English:

1. Спорт играет такую большую роль в жизни американ­цев, что социология спорта, спортивная медицина и психо­логия стали уважаемыми профессиями.

2. Спорт связан с системой образования уникальным спо­собом.

3. У меня нет времени для занятия спортом. Я понимаю, что спорт очень помогает в учебе и в жизни, но я не могу распределить время между занятиями и спортом.

4. Кто установил новый рекорд по прыжкам в высоту?

5. Лучшие игроки становятся большими звездами и зарабатывают много де­нег каждый год.

6. В теннис играют круглый год.

7. Какие ещё игры пользуются популярностью?

8. Вы увлекаетесь подводным плаванием?

9. Популярен ли баскетбол в США?

10. Мне бы хотелось посмотреть игру в бейсбол.

 

БЛАГОДАРНОСТЬ

Наиболее употребительны нейтральные формы благодарности:

Спасибо! Thank you.

Спасибо, да. Yes, please.

Спасибо, нет. No, thank you.

Обороты с кратким прилагательным «благодарен»:

Я благодарен вам. I'm grateful to you.

Выражения усиленной благодарности:

Большое спасибо! Thank you (so) very much. Many thanks.

Спасибо, что навестили меня. Thank you for coming to see me.

Thanks for the visit.

От всей души (сердечно) бла- Thank you from the bottom of my

годарю вас за... heart for...

Спасибо (благодарю) за то (за Thank you for all that you have

все), что вы сделали для меня. done for me.

Эмоционально-экспрессивные выражения благодарности:

Я так благодарна вам, что нет I don't know how to thank you.

слов I can never thank you enough.

Нет слов выразить вам мою My gratitude cannot be expressed

благодарность! in words.

Стилистической повышенностью и официальностью обладают обороты с кратким прилагательным «признателен»:

Я вам очень признателен I'm very/most grateful to you (very) grateful to you

Оттенок официальности имеют следующие высказывания:

Разрешите вас поблагодарить. I would like to thank you.

Я хочу (хотел бы) поблагодарить I wish/would like to thank you for

Оттенок долженствования содержится в выражениях:

Я должен поблагодарить вас за I (really) must thank you for...
Эмоционально-экспрессивные выражения благодарности:

Как я вам благодарен! I am so grateful to you!
Тысяча благодарностей! A thousand thanks!

Продолжением благодарности может быть выражение комплимента за услуги, а также уверения в своих ответных обязательствах:

Спасибо, вы очень (так) любезны Thank you, it's really very kind of you.

Вы очень (так) внимательны! You're very obliging.

Благодарностью аудитории за внимание является выражение:

Спасибо за внимание Thank you for your kind attention,

Иногда вместе с просьбой заранее выражается благодарность за будущую услугу:

Заранее благодарен вам! Thank you in advance.

Я буду вам очень благодарен I'll be very grateful to you.

(признателен, обязан)! I'll be much obliged.


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