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TEXT 13. Environmental protection

Our planet Earth is only a tiny part of the universe, but nowadays it's the only place where we can live. People always polluted their surroundings. But until now pollution was not such a serious problem. People lived in rural areas and did not produce such amount of polluting agents that would cause a dangerous situation in global scale. With the development of overcrowded industrial highly developed ci­ties, which put huge amounts of pollutants into surrounds, the problem has become more and more dangerous. Today our planet is in serious danger. Acid rains, global warming, air and water pollution, and overpopulation are the problems that threaten human lives on the Earth.

The poisoning of the world's land, air and water is the fastest spreading disease of civilization. It probably produces fewer headlines than wars, earthquakes and floods, but it is potentially one of history's greatest dangers to human life on the earth. If present trends continue for the next several decades, our planet will become uninhabitable.

Overpopulation are filled with poison: industrial and nuclear waste, chemical fertilizers and pesticides. The Mediterranean is already nearly dead, the North Sea is following. The Aral Sea is on the brink of extinction. If nothing is done about it, one day nothing will be able to live in the seas.

Every ten minutes one kind of animal, plain or insect dies out for ever. If nothing is done about it, million species which are alive today will have become extinct twenty years from now.

Air pollution is a very serious problem. In Cairo just breathing the air is life threatening - equivalent to smoking two packs of cigarettes a day. The same holds true for Mexico City and 600 cities of the former Soviet Union.

Industrial enterprises emit tons of harmful substances. These emissions have disastrous consequences for our planet. They are the main reason for the greenhouse effect and acid rains.

An even greater environmental problems are not somebody else's. They join and support various international organizations and green parties. If governments wake up what is happening - perhaps we'll be able to avoid the disaster that threatens the world and all of us with it.

In order to understand how air pollution affects our body, we must understand exactly what this pollution is. The pol­lutants that harm our respiratory system are known as particulates. Participates are the small solid particles that you can see through rays of sunlight. They are products of incomplete combustion in engines, for example: internal-combustion en­gines, road dust and wood smoke. Billions of tons of coal and oil are consumed around the world every year. When these fuels are burnt, they produce smoke and other by-products, which is emitted into the atmosphere. Although wind and rain occasionally wash away the smoke, given off by power plants and automobiles, but it is not enough. These chemical com­pounds undergo a series of chemical reactions in the presence of sunlight; as a result we have smog, mixture of fog and smoke. While such pollutants as particulates we can see, other harmful ones are not visible. Among the most dangerous to our health are carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dio­xide and ozone or active oxygen. If you have ever been in an enclosed parking garage or a tunnel and felt dizzy or light­headed, then you have felt the effect of carbon monoxide (CO). This odourless, colourless, but poisonous gas is produced by the incomplete burning of fossil fuels, like gasoline or diesel fuel.



Factories emit tons of harmful chemicals. These emissions have disastrous consequences for our planet. They are the main reason for the greenhouse effect and acid rains.

Our forests are disappearing because they are cut down or burnt. If this trend continues, one day we won't have enough oxygen to breathe, we won't see a beautiful green forest at all.

The seas are in danger. They are filled with poison: indus­trial and nuclear wastes, chemical fertilizers and pesticides. If nothing is done about it, one day nothing will be able to live in our seas.

Every ten minutes one kind of animal, plant or insect dies out forever. If nothing is done about it, one million species that are alive today may soon become extinct.

And even greater threats are nuclear power stations. We all know how tragic the consequences of the Chernobyl disas­ter are.

Fortunately, it's not too late to solve these problems. We have the time, the money and even the technology to make our planet a better, cleaner and safer place. We can plant trees and create parks for endangered animals. We can recycle our wastes; persuade enterprises to stop polluting activities, be­cause it is apparent that our careless use of fossil fuels and chemicals is destroying this planet. And it is now more than ever apparent that at the same time we are destroying our bo­dies and our future.

Questions:

1. What is the fastest-spreading disease of civilization?

2. What planet-wide problems have overpopulation, pollution and energy consumption created?

3. What will happen to our planet if present trends continue?

4. What is happening to the seas and rivers?

5. The Aral Sea is on the brink of extinction. Do you think it's possible to save it?

6. Is air pollution a serious problem? Why?

7. What were the tragic consequences of the Chernobyl disaster?

8. Are nuclear power stations dangerous?

9. What is the main cause of the greenhouse effect and acid rains?

10. What do people of different countries do to save our planet?

Vocabulary:

tiny part крошечная часть

to pollute загрязнять

rural area сельский район

polluting agents загрязняющие компоненты

global scale. глобальный масштаб

acid rains кислотные дожди

overpopulation перенаселение

to threaten угрожать

to affect воздействовать

respiratory system дыхательная система

particulates макрочастицы

solid particles твердые частицы

ray of sunlight солнечный свет

combustion сжигание, сгорание

internal-combustion engine двигатель внутреннего сго­рания

wood smoke сгорание древесины

by-products побочные продукты

power plants силовые установки

chemical compounds химические элементы

to undergo подвергаться воздействию

smog смог

fog туман

carbon monoxide угарный газ

nitrogen oxides окислы азота

sulfur dioxide сернистый газ

dizzy головокружение

odourless без запаха

fossil fuels органическое топливо

gasoline бензин

to emit испускать, выбрасывать

disastrous consequences гибельные последствия

greenhouse effect парниковый эффект

to breathe дышать, вдыхать

chemical fertilizers удобрения

pesticide пестицид

plant растение

insect насекомое

extinct исчезнуть, вымирать

wastes отходы

environment окружающая среда

headline заголовок

earthquake землетрясение

flood наводнение

potentially потенциально

decade декада

uninhabitable непригодный для жилья

overpopulation перенаселение

consumption потребление

deforestation обезлесение

ozone depletion истощение озонового слоя

greenhouse effect парниковый эффект

industrial and nuclear waste промышленные и ядерные отходы

fertilizer удобрение

to poison отравлять

to spread (spread, spread) распространяться

disease болезнь

species вид, род

to die out вымирать

to become extinct угасать, вымирать

enterprise предприятие

to emit выбрасывать

emission выброс

harmful substances вредные вещества

disastrous чудовищный

disaster несчастье, беда

consequence последствие

threat угроза

nuclear power stations атомные электростанции

tragic трагический

to support поддерживать

to threaten угрожать

the Mediterranean Средиземное море

the North Sea Северное море

the Aral Sea Аральское море

trend тенденция

acid rains кислотные дожди

global warming глобальное потепление

Mexico City Мехико

Chernobyl Чернобыль

pesticide пестицид

on the brink of extinction на грани исчезновения

environmental protection защита окружающей среды

rubbish мусор

kitchen leftovers кухонные отходы

to pollute загрязнять

to be concerned about smth. беспокоиться о чем-то

to put trash into smth. сбрасывать мусор (во что-то)

the polluted water загрязненная вода

to get contaminated быть отравленным

air pollution загрязнение воздуха

to destroy the ozone layer разрушать озоновый слой

to die from acid rain погибать из-за кислотных дождей

to affect the balance of nature оказывать влияние на гармонию в природе

to protect from pollution защищать от загрязнения

Dialogue:

- And we have a scientist with us today to discuss various predictions about our weather in the future. Professor Stein, what do you think about the latest report about our climate?

- I think the predictions are, in general, very accurate.

- So you think temperature will rise in the future?

- Yes, in the next twenty-five years, they'll rise by two six degrees.

- And what will the consequences of that be?

- Well, the ice at the North and South poles will melt and the sea level will rise.

- Do you think whole countries will disappear?

- No, I don't. That won't happen for another hundred or more years.

- And will there be enough fresh water for everyone?

- Yes, there will. But it won't come from rainfall, which will decrease in general, but from the sea with the salt taken out.

- Will fresh water cost more?

- Yes, certainly. And this will mean that factory goods will cost more to produce.

- What effect will this have on the economy? Will it get worse?

- No, I don't think so. But we'll have to change our lifestyles in the future.

 

Translate into English:

1. Люди жили в сельских районах и не производили такого количества загрязняющих компонентов, которые могли вызвать опас­ную ситуацию в глобальном масштабе.

2. Кислотные дожди, глобальное потепление, загрязнение воздуха и воды, перенаселенность — пробле­мы, которые угрожают человеческой жизни на Земле.

3. Каждые десять минут на нашей планете вымирает один вид животных, растений или насекомых.

4. Фабрики выбрасывают тонны вредоносных химикатов, которые являются главной причиной парникового эффек­та и кислотных дождей.

5. Еще большая угроза — атомные электростанции.

6. Всем нам известны трагические последствия чернобыльской ка­тастрофы.

7.Загрязняющие вещества, которые вредят на­шей дыхательной системе называются макрочастицами.

8. Макрочастицы — это мелкие твердые частицы, которые мы видим на солнечном свету.

9. Среди наиболее опасных для нашего здоровья находится угарный газ, окислы азота, сер­нистый газ и озон, или активный кислород.

10. Мы имеем время, деньги и технологии, чтобы сде­лать нашу планету лучше, чище и безопаснее.

ВЫРАЖЕНИЕ СВОЕЙ ТОЧКИ ЗРЕНИЯ

При изложении или отстаивании своей точки зрения или позиции можно использовать следующие реплики:

Послушайте, что я вам скажу... Look, I'll tell you what...

Значит, так... It's like this. You see...

Начну с того, что... I'll start by saying that...

На мой взгляд... As I see it...

По моему мнению... In my opinion...

Насколько я понимаю... As far as I can see...

С одной стороны... On the one hand... on the other...

с другой ... For one thing... for another...

Общеизвестно, что... It's common knowledge that...

Учитывая все обстоятельства... All things considered...

При прочих равных условиях All other things being equal...

Следует признать, что... It must be admitted that...

Мне хотелось бы внести яс- I should like to make it clear

ность... that...

Вы во многом правы, но... There's much truth in what you're saying, yet...

Я понимаю вас, но... , I see your point, but...

В заключение мне хотелось бы In conclusion I'd like to say that...
сказать...

Таково мое мнение. This is the way I see it

Вы можете не соглашаться со You are free to disagree with me

мной, но... but...


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