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Древнеанглийские согласные

 

          губн. переднеязычн. среднеяз. заднеяз. фаринг.
согласные шумные смычные глухие краткие p t k’ sk’ k  
долгие pp tt k’k’ kk  
звонкие краткие b d   g  
долгие bb dd g’g’ gg  
щелевые глухие краткие f θ, s x’ x h
долгие ff θθ, ss x’x’ xx hh
звонкие краткие v ð, z γ’ γ  
долгие          
сонанты     краткие m n, l, r      
долгие mm nn, ll, rr      
полугласные         w   j    

 

Phonetic changes.OE Fracture (Breaking). – is diphthongization of short vowels before certain consonant clusters.It is the vowels a and e that undergo fracture.

 

ēo > e: : dēop > deep [de:p]

īe > i: : līehtan > lighten [‘li:x’ten] (NE lighten)

e: : hīeran > heren [‘he:ren] (NE hear)

ea > a : earm > arm [arm] (NE arm)

eo > e : heorte > herte [‘herte] (NE heart)

ie > i : nieht, niht > night [nix’t] (NE night)

e : hierde, hyrde > herd [herd] “shepherd”

 

Nearly all OE phonetic changes – fracture,mutation, palatalization, loss of consonants and contraction of vowels appear to be due to one common principle – that of assimilation.

 

Тема 5.Vocabulary.Composition of OE vocabulary. The OE vocabulary is mainly homogeneous.Loan-words are insignificant part of it.Among native words we can distinguish following layers:

1.Common IE words, which were inherited from the IE parent language:

a.substantives: faeder 'отец', modor 'мать', пата 'имя',

tun3e 'язык', fot 'нога', niht 'ночь', heorte 'сердце'.

b.adjectives: neowe 'новый', зеопз 'молодой', riht

'правый', 1опз 'длинный'.

c.verbs: sittan 'сидеть', Нсзап 'лежать', beran 'нести',

teran 'рвать'.

2.Common Germanic words:

a.substantives: eorf)e 'земля', land 'страна', sae 'море',

heall 'зал', sand 'песок', earm 'рука'.

b.adjectives: earm 'бедный', згёпе 'зеленый'.

c.verbs: глаголы: findan 'находить', sinsan 'петь', steorfan

'умирать'.

3.Specifically English words, not found in any other language.They are very few. The verb “clipian” – call is one of them.

Ways of developing the vocabulary. The OE vocabulary, like that of any other language, develops in two ways:1.by forming new words from elements existing in the language

2.by taking other words from other languages

In OE the first of these is by far more important.

Word-building. There are three main types of words-building in OE:

1.Morphological word-building – creating new words by means of morphological elements.This type is subdivided into two types:affixation and compostion.Suffixes play an important part in OE. We shall consider suffixes, grouping them according to the parts of speech they derive.



Substantive suffixes. – ere:fiscere – fisherman, writere- writer

- ester:spinnestere – spinner, baecestre – woman baker

-end: freond- friend, wealdend – ruler

- en: fyxen-fox and others.

Adjective suffixes: -sum:sibbsum – peaceful, hiersum – obedient.

- full:sorgfull – sorrowfull, synnfull – sinful

-lic: freondlic – friendly, luflic – full of love

Verb suffixes: the suffix s: bletsian ‘bless’ , cleansian ‘clean’

- ett: bliccettan “sparkle”, sporettan ‘spur’, cohhettan ‘cough

Prefixes: -a ‘meaning out of’: arisan “arise’, aberan ‘sustain’

- be: is added to substantives and verbs: beggan’ go around, beniman ‘deprive’

- for:expresses destruction or loss:fordon ‘destroy’

- mis:negation or bad quality: mislician ‘displease’

- of: a reinforcing meaning: ofslean ‘kill’, ofteon ‘take away’

- un: negative meaning: uncuss ‘unknown’

2.Syntactical word-building – building new words from syntactical groups.

3.Semantic word-building – building new words by using existing words in new meaning.

Composition is widely used in OE. There are compound substantives, adjectives, and lesser in number verbs.Compound substantives may be formed by joining.

1. subs+subst.:aefentid ‘evening time’

2.adjec.+substant: cwicseolfor ‘quicksilver’

Compound adjectives may be formed by joining:

1.subst +adject: wln-saed ‘satiated with wine’

2.adj.+adj.: wid-cuss ‘widely known’

3.adj.+subst.: bliss-heort ‘happily-hearted’

Loan-Words: OE has only words from two sources – from Latin and Celtic languages. Some words taken over from Latin had been borrowed by Latin from Greek.

Latin. These may be classified into two layers

1. The oldest layer words taken over either directly from the Romans before the Anglo-Saxons settled in Britain or from the Celtic inhabitants of Britain. Here belong on the one hand, names of objects of material culture and on the other, names of products which the Anglo-Saxons from Roman merchants. The first group is represented by the words: straet ‘street’ from Latin strata ‘paved road’, weall from Latin vallum ‘wall’,win ‘wine’ from Latin vinum.

2. The second layer: words concerning religion and the church, taken over after the introduction of Christianity which began in 597, these words belong belong to the 7th century. This layer consists of words which directly or indirectly belong to the sphere of religion and church. When Christianity was introduced in England, the Latin language came to be used as language of the church. At this time a certain number of Latin words were taken over into English: biscop ‘bishop’ from Latin episcopus, cleric ‘church man’ from Latin clericus, Greek klerikos.

Celtic. Celtic languages had but a marginal influence on the English vocabulary. Among Celtic loan-words we may mention: dun ‘MnE down’. Some Celtic elements have been preserved in geographical names: amnuin ‘river’ in Avon , cothair ‘fortress’on Carnarvon. On the whole, the percentage of loan-words in OE was very insignificant, as compared with later periods.

Poetic Vocabulary.OE poetry had a special vocabulary of its own. In epic poems such as Beowulf, there are a number of poetic words, among them there are many compounds to denote ideas essential for poetry. Thus the notion of ‘warrior’ is expressed by the words rinc, mecgg, secgg, freca, gguma and by the compounds beado-rinc ‘battle-hero’.

Grammatical Structure.Morphology.The Substantive. Three grammatical categories are represented in the OE substantives, just as in many other Germanic and Indo-European languages:gender, number and case. Of these three, gender is a lexico-grammatical category, that is, every substantive with all its forms belongs to one gender (masculine, feminine or neuter). The other tow purely grammatical categories:substantives are inflected for number and case.There are two numbers: singular and plural and 4 cases: nominative, genitive, dative and accusative.

Значения и функции падежей:

· Именительный: 1) подлежащее: þæt flōd wēox þā (этот поток увеличился затем);

2) именная часть сказуемого: Hē wæs swīþe spēdiз man (Он был очень богатым человеком);

3) обращение: Sunu mīn, hlyste mīnre lāre (Сын мой, слушай мои поучения).

· Родительный: 1) определение со значением притяжательности (принадлежности или обладания): зrendles dǽda (дела Гренделя);

2) косвенное дополнение: hē bād westanwindes (он ждал западного ветра); 3) партитивность, т.е. часть от целого: Ohtthere sǽde his hlāforde, Æfrede cyninзe, þæt hē ealra Norðmannanorðmest būde (Охтхере сказал своему господину Альфреду королю, что он из всех норманнов (норвежцев) северней всего жил);

4) меру: þrēora mīla brād (шириной в три миле);

5) обстоятельство времени, образа действия и т.д.: nihtes (ночью).

· Дательный (очень многозначен): 1) обстоятельство времени и места: pa s ton hie pone winter tо Cwatbrycзe (then stayed they that winter at Cwatbridge). Иногда эти отношения уточняются с помощью предлогов: on morзenne (утром);

2) косвенное дополнение: þā sende sē cyninз tō þǽm here and him cūþan hēt (затем послал король к армии и приказал (ему) проинструктировать их);

3) пассивный субъект: him зelīcode heora þēawas (ему понравились их обычаи);

4) орудийности: hit haзolade stanum (it hailed (with) stones);

· Винительный: 1) прямое дополнение: sē wulf dōdǽlþ þā scēap (этот волк разгоняет овец);

2) косвенное дополнение: Eft hē cwæð sē wið hine specende wæs (Затем он сказал, тот, который с ним говорил);æðēðæē

3) обстоятельство: þā sǽton hīe þone winter at Cwatbrycз (Тогда остались они эту зиму в Кватбридже

Such types of substantives are distinguished : a-stems, i-stems, u-stems, n-stems. The strong declension includes nouns with vocalic stems:-a,-o,-i,-u and the weak declension comprises n-stems only.

a-stems may be either masculine or neuter.

 

Единственное число

Мужской род Средний род

Односложные

Краткий слог Долгий слог

Nom. stan 'камень* scip 'корабль' ban 'кость'

Gen. stanes scipes banes

Dat. stane scipe bane

Acc. stan scip ban

Двусложные

Краткий слог Долгий слог

Nom. reced 'здание ' nleten 'скот'

Gen. recedes nletenes

Dat. recede nietene

Acc. reced nietenv

 

Множественное число

Nom. Stanas scipu ban reced nietenu

Gen. stana scipa bana receda nietena

Dat. stanum scipum banum recedum nletenum

Acc. stanas scipu ban reced nietenu

a-stems correspond to Russian substantives of the types стол, окно and to Latin 2nd declension substantives of the types hortus ‘garden’, oppodium ‘town’.

o-stems are all feminine. plural

Nom. for 'поездка' fora

Gen. fore fora

Dat. fore forum

Acc. fore fora

i-stems: among them there are substantives off all three genders. The root vowel has undergone mutation.

 

Masculine Feminine Neuter

Singular

Nom. Hyll ‘hill’ sife ‘sieve’ hilt ‘hilt’

Gen. hylles sifes hiltes

Dat. Hylle sife hilte

Acc. Hyll sife hilt

Plural

Nom. Hyllas sifu hilt

Gen. hylla sifa hilta

Dat. Hyllum sifum hiltum

Acc. Hyllas sifu hilt

The i-stems correspond to Russian substantives of the type кость and to Latin ones of the 3rd declension like finis ‘end’.

u-stems : there are masculine and feminine substantives.

Masculine Feminine

Singular

Nom. Feld ‘field’ duru ‘door’

Gen. felda dura

Dat. Felda dura

Acc. Feld duru

Plural

Nom. Felda dura

Gen. felda dura

Dat. Feldum durum

Acc. Felda dura

u-stems correspond to Latin substantives of the 4th declension fructus ‘fruit’.

 

Weak declension n-stems.

Masculine n-stems end in the nominative singular in –a, feminine and neuter in –e; in the neuter substantives the accusative is the same as the nominative. No other difference between genders is found.

Мужской род Женский род

Ед инственное число

Masculine Feminine Neuter

Nom. Nama ‘name’ cwene 'женщина ёазе 'глаз*

Gen. naman cwenan ёазаn

Dat. naman cwenan ёазаn

Acc. naman cwenan ёазе

Plural

Masculine Feminine Neuter

Nom. Naman cwenan eaзan

Gen. namen cwenena ea3ena

Dat. Namum cwenum ea3um

Acc. Naman cwenan ea3an

 

Root stems. In all Germanic languages there is a type of substantives which differs in its morphological structure from all other types. These are root stems, i.e. substantives which never had any stem-forming suffix, so the case ending were added on immediately to the root. In OE there are a number of substantives of all three genders which wholly or partly belong to the root declension.

Masculine Feminine

Singular

Nom. Mann ‘man’ mus ‘mouse’

Gen. mannes muse

Dat. Men mys

Acc. Mann mus

Plural

Nom. Men mys

Gen. manna musa

Dat. Mannum musum

Acc. Men mys

The substantives wifman, wimman ‘woman’ is declined in the same way as mann.

r-stems are represented by a few masculine and feminine substantives denoting relationship: faeder ‘father’, brohor ‘brother’, modor ‘mother’, dohtor ‘daughter’, sweoster ‘sister’.

The Pronoun. There are several types of pronouns in OE: personal, possessive, demonstrative, interrogative, definite, negative, relative.

число единственное множественное двойственное
лицо 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2
падеж Им. ic þū hē, hit, hēo, hīo wē зē hīe, hī, hŷ, hēo wit зit
Род. mīn þīn his, his, hiere ūre, ēower hira, ūser heora, hiera, hyra uncer incer
Дат. mē þē him, him, hiere ūs ēow him, heom unc inc
Вин. mē þē hine, hit, mec þēc hī, hŷ ūs, ēow, hīe, hī, hŷ, ūsic ēowic hēo uncit uncit, inc

 

Possesive. These are derived from the genitive case of the personal pronouns of all persons and numbers. The possessive pronouns mīn , þīn, uncer, ure, eower are declined in the same way as strong adjectives. The possessive pronouns his, hire and hiera are unchanged.

Demonstrative.Two: se ‘that’ and þēs ‘this’. The meaning of the pronoun se is often weakened, so that it is approaches the status of an article, e.g. se mann ‘the man’.

The traditional view was that the definite article appears in OE, while the indefinite one appears in ME. This view has now to be modified in accordance with modern linguistics theories. The point is that the notion of definite article can only be applied on condition that there exists in the language at the same time another article, the indefinite one. The two notions ‘definite’ and ‘indefinite’ have a reasonable sense only as members of an opposition based on category of definitiveness\ indefinitiveness. Since there was no indefinite article in OE (though occasionally the numeral an might have its meaning weakened so as to approach that of the definite article)

Определенный: 1) указательные местоимения часто ослабляли свое значение: wæs he se mon (XII в.);

2) tha, tho, the, thes, ther, the (XII в.);

3) the (XIV в.).

Неопределенный: древнеанглийское числительное ān > a, an.

Лингвистические факторы появления артикля: 1) исчезновение склонения прилагательных;

2) изменение функции порядка слов

 

 

число ед. мн. ед. мн.
род м. ж. с.   м. ж. с.  
падеж
Им. Род. Дат.   Вин.   Тв. se/sē sēo þæt þæs þǽre þæs þǽm/ þǽre þǽm/ þām þām þone/ þā þæt þỳ þỳ þon þǽre þon þŷ Þā Þāra, þǽra þǽm/ þām   þā   þǽm/ þām Þēs þeōs þis Þisses þisse Þisses Þissum þisse Þissum   Þisne þās þis   Þÿs/ Þÿs/ Þis þis Þās Þissa Þissum   þās

Определенные definite: сильные: зehwā, æle; слабые: se, ea;

Неопределенные indefinite: sum, æniз (каждый);

Отрицательные nagative: nān, næniз;

Вопросительные interrogative: Им. hwā, hwæt;

Род. hwæs;

Дат. hwæm;

Вин. hwone;

Тв. hwŷ;

Oтносительные relative: þe, seþe (sē + þe), þa: þa beorзas þe men hætan Olpis

The interrogative pronouns hwā ‘who’, hwæt ‘what’; hwic ‘which’.

 

The Adjective. Forms of OE adjective express categories of gender (masculine, feminine, neuter), number (singular, plural) and case (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, and partly instrumental). Every adjective can be declined according to the strong and weak declension.

1. Древнеанглийское прилагательное, его категории

1) Категории: род: мужской, женский, средний;

число: единственное, множественное;

падеж: именительный, родительный, дательный, винительный, творительный.

2) Система склонения: слабое –с определенным существительным или в сравнительной и превосходной степени, совпадает со слабым склонением существительного: good

  единственное множественное
  м ж с м ж с
И. Р. Д. В. Т. зōda зōde зōde зōdan зōdan зōdan зōdan зōdan зōdan зōdan зōdan зōdan зōdan зōdra (зōdena) зōdum зōdan

 

сильное – с существительным в общем смысле, совпадает с сильным склонением существительного, включая местоименные формы:black

  единственное множественное
  м ж с м ж с
И. Р. Д. В. Т. blæc blacu blæc blaces blæcre blaces blacum blæcre blacum blæcne blace blæc blace blace blace blaca blacu

Формальное различие:

существительное указательное местоимение
oснова на -n основа на –a, ō, u, i  
слабое склонение прилагательных сильное склонение прилагательных
     

 

Degrees of comparison. The comparitives are declined as strong adjectives, the superlatives rarely take the forms of the strong declension and mostly follow weak declension

Earm ‘poor’ earmra earmost

Eald ‘old’ ieldra ieldest

Several adjectives have suppletive forms of comparative and superlative

3od ‘good’ betera betst

Yfel ‘bad’ wiers wierest

Lytel ‘little’ laessa laest

Occasionally, comparative and superlative adjectives forms are derived from adverbs

Fear ‘far’ fierra fierrest, fyrrest

Neah ‘near’ nearrra nehst,nyhst

 

Numerals.Numerals from 1 to 3 are declined. Numerals from 4 to 19 are usually invariable. основан на десятеричной системе, но сохраняет следы двенадцатеричной системы.

2 - tweзen, twā;

3 - þrīe, þrÿ, þrēo;

4 - feower;

5 - fīf;

6 - syx, siex;

7 - seoton;

8 - eahte;

9 - niзon;

10 - tien, tÿn;

11 - endleofan;

12 - twelf;

13 - þiortīne/-tiene;

19 - niзontīne/-tiene;

Склонение числительных 1, 2, 3:

  м c ж
Им. Род. Дат. Вин. tweзen tü, twä twä tweзra - twæm, twäm - tweзen tü, twä twä
Им. Род. Дат. Вин. þrï, þrïo þrio, þrëo þrëo þrioþra - þrëm - þrī, þrīo þrio, þrëo þrëo

 

Категории: рода: мужской, женский, средний;

падежа: именительный, родительный, дательный, винительный.

1. Развитие английского порядкового числительного

Древнеанглийский период


1) первый – forma, fyrmesta, fyrest, ærest;

второй – ōþer, æftera;

третий – þridda;

четвертый – feirwerþa;

пятый – fifþa;

шестой – siexta;

седьмой – seofonþa;

восьмой – eahtoþa;

девятый – niзoþa;

десятый – teoþa;

одиннадцатый – endlefta;

двенадцатый – twelfta;

тринадцатый – þirteoþa;

девятнадцатый – niзonteoþa;

двадцатый – twentiзoþa;

сотый – hundteoþa.

 


2) Категории: падежа: именительный, родительный, дательный, винительный.

3) Склонение: сильное – только ōþer, æftera;

слабое – все остальные.

4) Структура и способы образования: первый – третий – простые;

четвертый – двенадцатый – с помощью суффикса þā/ta;

тринадцатый – девятнадцатый – с помощью суффикса teoþa;

двадцатый – сотый – с помощью суффикса tiзoþa;

десятки и единицы: fif and fiftiзoþa (пятьдесят пятый).


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