Vocabulary. Среднеанглийский период.
1) Cостав неоднородный, большое число заимствований из французского (нормандское завоевание XI – XIV вв.).
2) Cтруктура: общеиндоевропейский: fader, sitten;
общегерманский: sea, singen;
3 исхода борьбы английского слова с французским:
1. победило английское слово: friendship (фр. amiety);
2. победило французское слово: rivere;
3. оба слова остались в языке: ox – beef.
Vocabulary developed in ME period both by internal processes and by borrowing words and word-building morphemes from other languages. In the sphere of internal development we may note such facts as deriving new words by means of affixation(brotherhood, redynesse, herty‘hearty’) and development of meaning in accordance with developments in social life: OE cniht ‘meant boy’ in ME ‘knight’
OE verb sellan ‘give’ in ME ‘to sell, give money’, meaning was narrowed.
A considerable part of the vocabulary was common to English and Scandinavian dialects. In many words root was the same, while endings were different.OE words and their Sc. Counterparts:
Sunu ‘son’ sunr
Heorte ‘heart’ hiarta
Tima ‘time’ time and so on
Another part of Scan. Vocabulary did not correspond to English. It is in this sphere that Scandinavian dialects influenced English. This influence covered a considerable semantic field, including both political and everyday words: lagu ‘MnE law’, wrang ‘wrong’, husbonda ‘husband’ and so on.even the 3rd plural person pronoun was taken from Scandinavian, became they, them. Among Scandinavian loan words there were many military terms, but they did not survive, were superseded by French words. Scandinavian elements became part of many geographical names: Kirkby, Derby.
In some cases Scandinavian words penetrated into London English at a late date in the 14th or 15th century that is, at a time when Scandinavian dialects were no longer spoken in England.
French Influence. Penetration of French words into English did not start immediately after the Norman conquest. It only started in the 12th century and reached its climax in the 13th and 14th centuries. After the conquest French was introduced as the language of the law courts, debates in Parliament. Under such circumstances considerable layers of the population became bilingual. This created preconditions for a mass entry of French words into the English language.
Many words adopted denoted things and notions connected with the life of Norman aristocracy . alongside these many everyday words penetrated into English, which denoted ideas already having names in English. As a result of borrowing, pairs of synonyms appeared in English and a struggle between the synonyms would ensue. The outcome of the struggle would be different in different cases. We may state three main possibilities:
1.the struggle end in favour of the French word, its native synonym disappears
2.it is the native words that gets the upper hand, the French word after existing in English for some time is ousted again
3.both words survive, but a difference in meaning develops between them, which may be either purely semantic or stylistic.
Several main semantic spheres of French words:
1.government, the court : prince, baron, noble, royal, court, judge…
2.army, military life: werre ‘war’, army, bataille, regiment, mail, castle, banner, , siege, victory, defeat..
3.religion, church: religion, saint, frère ‘friar’, preyen ‘pray’, sermon, chapel..
4.town professions: bocher ‘butcher’, peintre ‘painter’, tailor
5.art notions: art, colour,figure, image, ornament
6.amusements: plesir ‘pleasure’, leysir, ese ‘ease’, dinner, soper ‘supper.’
When both the native and French word were preserves in English, there arose a differentiation of their meanings:ox-beef, calf-veal, sheep-mutton, pig-pork. Native word denoted the living animal, while the French word denoted the dish made of its flesh.
Sometimes the intruding French word forced its native synonym into a different sphere of meaning. The OE haerfest meaning ‘autumn’ was superseded by a French word autumn, but survived in English with the meaning harvest.
English also adopted some French derivational affixes:
Suffixes: -ance, -ence: ignorance, arrogance, entrance, dependence, excellence
-ment: government, treatment, agreement,
-ess: countes, baroness, goddess, murderess
-ard: coward, bastard, drunkard
-al: funeral, proposal, refusal
-able, -ible: admirable, tolerable, legible
-dis, -des: disappoint, disagree, disdain
-en: encage, encompass
1.1.1. Phonetic Changes. Количественные
1. в открытом слоге (ок. 1200 г. – 13 в.)
e > ē: OE beran > ME bēren
o > ō: OE hope > ME hōpe
a > ā: OE macan > ME māken
но:i > ē (только в сев. : OE wicu > ME wēke
u > ō диалектах) : OE duru > ME dōre
2. перед сочетанием сонант + согл.
3. перед –st: OE læsta > ME lēst
но:OE brēost > ME brest
dūst > dust
4. перед – sh [s]: OE flæsc > ME flēsh
Удлинение не произошло:
1. OE cildru > ME childre
2. OE ānd > ME and
wōlde > ME wolde
3. OE crīstendōm > ME cristendom
b) Сокращение (ок. 1000 г.)
1. OE sōhte > ME sohte
2. OE mētte > ME mette
3. OE crīstendōm > ME cristendom
4. OE wīsdōm > ME wisdom
5. OE ān > ME an
tō > to
ānd > and
а) Редукция (с 13 в.)
1. OE hlǽfdīзe > hlǽfdiзe
2. OE –an > ME –en: OE drincan > ME drincen
- u > -e : duru > dōre
- as > - es : daзas > dayes
b) Спонтанные изменения индивидуальных гласных
1. OE æ > ME a: OE зlæd > ME glad
2. OE ǽ (< OG ǽ) > ē: OE slǽpan > ME slēpen
3. OE ā > ME ō (Мидл., Южн.) : OE зān > ME gōn (в XIII в.)
ā (Сев.) gān
4. OE y > ME i (Сев., Вост.-Мидл.) : OE fyrst > ME first
e (Кентский) ferst
y (Зап.-Мидл., Южн.) : fyrst
OE ēa > ME ε: : OE ēast > ME eest [ε:st] (NE east)
ēo > e: : dēop > deep [de:p]
īe > i: : līehtan > lighten [‘li:x’ten] (NE lighten)
e: : hīeran > heren [‘he:ren] (NE hear)
ea > a : earm > arm [arm] (NE arm)
eo > e : heorte > herte [‘herte] (NE heart)
ie > i : nieht, niht > night [nix’t] (NE night)
e : hierde, hyrde > herd [herd] “shepherd”
d) Появление новых дифтонгов
OE e+j > ME ei : OE weз > ME wey [wei] (NE way)
e: j > ei : зrēз > grey [grei]
æ + j > ai : mæз > may [mai] (may)
a + γ > au : laзu > lawe [‘laue] (law)
o + γ > ou : boзa > bowe [‘boue] (bow)
a: + w > ou : cnāwan > knowen [‘knouen] (know)
a: + x > au + x: brāhte > braughte [‘brauxte] (brought)
1.2. Общая характеристика системы гласных среднеанглийского периода (конец 14 в.)
Количественные: дефонологизация количества согласных (Конец XII в. – в северных, северо-восточных, мидлендских диалектах, конец XIV в. – в остальных диалектах).
OE pp > ME p
bb > b
tt > t
dd > d
kk > k
ff > f
θθ > θ
ss > s : OE kissan > ME kissen
Спеллинг эти изменения не отразил.
a) Фонологизация звонкости у щелевых (ок. 1200 г. – некоторые северные, северо-восточные, мидлендские диалекты, ок. 1400 г. – южные диалекты).
OE [v] > ME /v/
[ð] > ME /ð/
[z] > ME /z/ : OE rīsan > ME rīse [z]
1) в межвокальной позиции;
2) в начальной позиции в словах французского происхождения /v/, /z/: vertu, zēle;
3) в служебных словах, местоимениях, наречиях – /ð/: the, there.
b) другие изменения:
OE x > ME [x’]: knight;
lз > lw: зalзe > galwe
Выводы: 1. Исчезли геминаты, з, з’.
2. Появились х, х’.
3. v, ð, z стали фонемами.
Grammatical changes. Среднеанглийский период
Категории:рода – исчезает в первой половине СА периода как лексико-грамматическая категория, становится семантической;
числа: единственное, множественное;
падежа: общий (ДА именительный, дательный, винительный), родительный.
Система склонения:(1400 г.) – по роду I, II, III -
Сев. Мидл.: О. –е (ж);
Южный: О. –е, - en (мн.ч.) + корневая: men;
Парадигмы:-e, -es (<ДА -es), -es (<ДА - as), -en, -re, чередование: brethren (чередование + -en).
Тенденция:значительное упрощение системы.
Причины:Б. Ильиш – морфологические факторы (ослабление флексий, в результате – ослабление их коммуникативной роли, замена предлогами);
В. Аракин – скандинавское и французское влияние;
Т. Расторгуева – совпадение падежных форм и редукция + скандинавское и французское влияние;
К. Бруннер – Фонетический фактор – редукция;
А. Смирницкий – и фонетический, и морфологический (но независимо).
Среднеанглийский период pronoun
Основные изменения: 1) I – более распространилось;
2) She (XII в.) < heo + seo (Смирницкий);
3) hit > it часто в безударном положении;
4) ye время от времени используется в значении единственного числа;
2) thei, them < из Скандинавского, сначала в Северных диалектах;
3) исчезло двойственное число.
Основные изменения: 1) min, þin используются со словами, начинающимися с гласной: min elbow;
2) their – заимствовано из Скандинавского;
3) по аналогии развиваются абсолютные формы с -es: the body is the housbondes, широко распространяются в XIV в.
4) появляется предложная фраза с партиципным значением: an hors of his
Среднеанглийский период demonstrative pronoun
Основные изменения: 1) s/th > th (XII в.);
2) þe, þeo, þæt > the, theo, that, ослабили значение и редуцировались в the (XIV в.) или (XV в.);
3) исчезли различия падежей;
4) the развивается в определенный артикль, подвергается озвончению.
5) Сокращение количества.
6) Редукция флективных форм: 4 > 3.
7) Изменения в классах:
Strong Verbs Фонетические: 1) ī – ō – i – i: rīsen;
2) e – ō – ō – ō: chesen;
3) i/e – a – o – o: binden;
4) e – a – ē/ō – ō: stolen;
5) e/i – a – ē/a – e: given;
6) ā – ō/ū – ō/ū – a: standen;
7) a – e – e – a: haten, leten.
Морфологические: 1) II – III классы: причастие II > прошедшее время множественного числа: chese – chōs – chōsen;
2) IV – V классы: прошедшее единственного – прошедшее множественного: given – gave.
4. Категории: лица – 3 (только в единственном числе);
числа – 2 (единственное и множественное);
времени – 3 (настоящее, прошедшее и будущее: shall, will (модальное значение ослаблено) + infinitive);
вида – ~
временной сооотнесенности (Смирницкий К.): haven + Participle II + Object: Whan he had conceyved the malice of these men;
залога – 2 (действительный, страдательный: bēn + Participle II: were sent on to him … the archbishop of York and the bishop of London…);
наклонения – 3 (изъявительное, повелительное, сослагательное: реального и нереального условия – в придаточных времени и уступки – от синтетического к аналитическому: If that I had loved him ye wolde have had no mercy on me).
6. Неличные формы: инфинитив – to…-en;
причастие I – i/e/a…-ing;
причастие II – -en, -d (слабое);
герундий – -ing < причастие I > отглагольное существительное – -ing: on huntinзe.
1. Увеличивается количество.
2. Сильные глаголы > слабые.
3. Скандинавские и французские заимствования > слабые: callen.
4. Класс I > II после редукции суффиксов -i/ō > [∂]: demede, maked;
III класс – в инфинитиве по аналогии с формами настоящего времени замещается корневой согласный: seggen > seien; libben > liven; habben > haven.
5. В XIV в. d > t перед и после l, n, r, f, v: leornode > lernte, lernt.
6. Категории: лица: 1, 2, 3 (только в единственном числе);
числа: единственное, множественное;
времени: настоящее, прошедшее, будущее;
вида: ~ ; временной сотнесенности (Смирницкий);
залога: действительный, страдательный;
наклонения: изъявительное, повелительное, сослагательное, условное.
1. 1) witen;
owen – oughte;
3) can – coude;
dare – dorste;
shall – shoulde;
6) may – mighte – moste.
2. В основном – фонетические изменения.
3. Большинство сохранили инфинитивы.
Каждый глагол также обозначал будущее время
Категории: степени сравнения: положительная, сравнительная, превосходная; образование: 1) суффиксы: ~/-er/ -est: grēt – grette – grettest;
2) чередование гласного + суффикс: old – elder – eldest;
3) супплетивность: evil – werse – werst;
4) аналитический: faithful – more faithful - most faithful;
но:проф. Б.А. Ильиш ставит под сомнение наличие аналитического способа образования степеней сравнения, т.к. у В. Шекспира много образований типа “more better, the most braviest”. Т.А. Расторгуева называет такие формы double comparatives and superlatives.
Тенденции: упрощение (исчезновение категорий рода, числа и падежа
1) 1 – ōn
2 – twō
3 – thrē
4 – four
5 – five
6 – six
7 – seven
8 – eight
9 – nīne
10 – tēn, ten
11 – eleven
12 – twelve
13 – thirtēne
19 – nīntēn
20 – twenty (i)
60 – sixty
70 – seventy (i)
100 – hundred
1000 – thousand
1000000 - million
2) Основные изменения: 1. Исчезли род, падеж.
1. Распалась система склонения.
2. Фонетические изменения образовательных суффиксов: OE tīne, tīene > tēne; OE tiз > ty.
3. Исчезло hund в числительных, обозначающих десятки (то 70).
4. OE hundteontiз > hundred.
5. Появилось новое числительное million < франц.
1) Первый – firest, first;
второй – second;
третий – third;
четвертый – fourthe;
пятый – fifthe;
шестой – sixthe;
седьмой – seventhe;
восьмой – eightthe;
девятый – nīnthe;
десятый – tenthe;
одиннадцатый – eleventhe;
двенадцатый – twelfthe;
тринадцатый – thirtenthe;
девятнадцатый – nīntenthe;
двадцатый – twentithe;
сотый - hundredthe.
2) Распалась система склонения, исчезли падежи. Фонетические изменения в соответствии с фонетическими законами. Появилось новое числительное second < фр., которое вытеснило прежнее oþer.
3) Фонетические изменения образовательных суффиксов:
ДА -þa/ta > -the: fifthe (пятый);
-teoþa > -tenthe/tienthe: fiftienthe (пятнадцатый);
-tiзora > -tithe: fiftithe (пятидесятый).
1.1. Изменения способа синтаксической связи внутри фразы.
Согласование практически исчезло к концу периода, осталось в адъективных фразах с сильным склоненеием прилагательных: woundes newe
Управление постепенно исчезает
Примыкание сфера применения расширяется вследствии исчезновения согласования в субстантивных и адъективных фразах: his shoures sote
Фиксация: Позиция элементов становится более фиксированной, приобретает функциональную значимость: a cannon ball; a ball cannon. В конце периода позиция основного элемента уже не пустует, а заменяется словами one, that: A moche felde, so grete one never he beholde. And there is the most fayr Chirche and it is that of Seynt Sophie.
Расширение: Начинают постепенно расширяться за счет употребления: предлогов (субстантивные фразы): For drunkenesse is verrdy sepulture of mannes wit (Chaucer); герундия и инфинитива (вербальные фразы): after his coming home, departed out of this world (Dekker); I would desire you to draw your knife; He was reported to be a very uncontended person (Puttenham).
Способы выражения элементов фразы Изменения в способах выражения элементов фразы в связи с изменениями в морфологии: распад системы склонений и слияние падежей, распад системы спряжения, совпадение и отпадение флексий. На место косвенных падежей именных частей речи приходят общий и именительный падежи номинальных частей речи. Ширится употребление предлогов в разных типах фраз: unlyk to my dede (Chaucer); fair and good of (in, to, at, by); ready for my ryde; measurable in looking; me longeth > I long.
Сдвиг в семантике и перенос синтаксического акцента
Процесс ширится, выходит за рамки синтаксиса: из синтаксических фраз образуются аналитические формы: shall singen (морфология); лексические единицы: look after, фразеологические единицы: maken melodie (лексикология).
2. Развитие английского синтаксиса на уровне предложения
1. Исторически номенклатура членов предложения не меняется: подлежащее, сказуемое, определение, дополнение, обстоятельство. Подлежащее Становится более разнообразным по значению и форме выражения, его наличие обязательно. Растут случаи употребления пассивного субъекта: One should not be put to so contynuall laboure.
Растет число случаев употребления местоимения hit в качестве безличного подлежащего: Hit me þincð.
Сказуемое. Становится более разнообразным как по значению, так и по форме: простое сказуемое приобретает аналитические формы: I shall doon diligence.
Идет процесс развития простого сказуемого в составное, и наоборот: He stired the coles tīl relente gan the wex. I have told hit you.
Составное сказуемое продолжает развиваться – интенсивно растет число глаголов-связок: He on his childhode bīcom heremite.
Усложняется структура составного сказуемого: ... of twenty yeer of age he was, I gesse.
Дополнение. Ширятся способы выражения дополнения: вместо именных частей речи в косвенных падежах появляются предложные дополнения. Однако четкой границы между прямым и косвенным дополнениями нет: On bookes and his Lernynge he it spente. Беспредложные дополнения широко используются: His reasons he spok...
Тема 9.Modern English. Formation of the National Language. Spread of London dialect in the 15th century.
In the course of the 15th century the London literary language gradually spread all over the country, superseding local dialects. Spoken English in various parts of Britain gradually approaches the literary norm and differences between the norm and popular speech tend to become obliterated. According to classification of the eminent British scholar Henry Cecyl Wyld, written documents of the 15th century can be classified into 3 types:
1.those written in the London literary language
2.those written in a more or less pure local dialect
3.those written basically in the London literary language but bearing some traces of local dialects.
This classification cut right across another classification according to the kind of documents:
The formation of a national language was greatly fostered by2 events of the late 15th century.the most significant event of the period was the Wars of Roses (1455-1485), which marked the decay of feudalism and the birth of a new social order. The political result of this prolonged struggle was the rise of an absolute monarchy.
Another great event was the introduction of printing. Printing was invented in Mayence (Germany) by Johann Gutenberg in 1438. The Englishman William Caxton became acquainted with this art. He published the first printing book ‘The Recuyeil of the History of Troy’. Returning to England he founded the first English printing house in London 1476, and in 1477 appeared the first book to be printed in England namely ‘The Dictes and Sayings of the Philosophers.’ The spread of printed books was bound to foster normalization of spelling and also of grammatical forms. Norms adopted by the first printers have basically survived up to our own days. Phonetic changes which have occurred since then have already been reflected in the spelling. As a result vowel letters in English acquired meaning different from those they have in French, German, Italian and other European languages; besides, each vowel letter acquired different sound values depending on its environment. Thus the letter a denotes different vowel sounds in the words.
Social changes of the 16th century created the conditions for a great cultural progress and the growth of a national literature. The 16th century was a time of great literary achievement. The greatest of this was W.Shakespeare, Ch.Marlowe, B.Johnson, Ph.Massinger, J.Fletcher. This epoch, which historians usually call Elizabethan after queen Elizabeth I, belongs to the period of Early Modern English.
The English Language During the Elizabethan Age
The last years of the fifteenth century mark the end of the Middle English period and the beginning of what is called the early Modern English period. The development of the language during the sixteenth century seems at first both paradoxical and chaotic. On the one hand, there was a movement to make the language more uniform; on the other hand, it continued to be, in both its spoken and written forms, more plastic than it is now, and it was commonly moulded to suit the requirements of individual expression.
Some of the confusion during the sixteenth century was due to the persistence of regional dialects. William Caxton, England's first printer, commented on the problem with some exasperation:
. . . That comyn englysshe that is spoken in one shyre varyeth from another. In so moche that in my dayes happened that certayn marchautes were in a ship in tamyse for to haue sayled ouer the see into zelandeand for lacke of wynde thei taryed atte forlond. and wente to land for to refreshe them And one of thaym named sheffelde a mercer came in to an hows and axed for mete and specyally he axyd after eggys And the goode wyf answerde that she coude speke no frenshe. And the marchaut was angry for he also coude speke no frenshe. but wolde haue hadde egges and she vnderstode hym not And thenne at laste a nother sayd that he wolde haue eyren then the good wyf sayd that she vnderstod hym well Loo what sholde a man in thyse dayes now wryte. egges or eyren certynly it is harde to playse euery man by cause of dyuersitie & chauge of langage.
Contributing to the problem of regional variations was the lack of any standard system of spelling and pronunciation. A writer spelled according to his own tastes, and a reader had to have a certain amount of agility and imagination. The world fellow, for example, was spelled variously as fallow, felowe, felow, fallowe; and where might be spelled where, whear, were, wheare, whair. Strangely, with all these variations, the Elizabethans seem to have had little difficulty in communicating.
But problems existed, and of these the Elizabethans seem to have been very conscious; during the sixteenth century the first attempts to "improve" and regulate the language were made. Among the forces promoting regulation was the printing press, which eliminated the vagaries and mistakes in hand-written manuscripts and greatly enlarged the number of books and pamphlets available. With the growth of printing came a renewed interest in education (a word, by the way, first used in English in 1531). By Shakespeare's time about half the population of London could at least read, and that number continued to grow.
Among the tens of thousands of items run off the presses during the latter part of the century were numerous "how to" books on spelling and usage, and many pamphlets and introductions defending the English vernacular over Latin as the language for all occasions. The preoccupation with a uniform language grew out of the strong sense of national identity; the experimentation with new vocabulary and new means of expression grew out of the adventurous spirit of the Elizabethans and also out of the concern for elegance and style; there was a realisation that, in the newly flexible social structure, an elegant style could contribute to upward social mobility.
Of necessity the language had to grow to accommodate the new discoveries being made in scholarship and science. During the later years of the sixteenth century, English vocabulary was tremendously expanded by energetic and sometimes indiscriminate adaptation of words from Latin, Greek, French, Italian, and Spanish to supply terms the native idiom lacked. (Experts estimate that more than ten thousand words were added to English during this period) So widespread was the importation of foreign terms that the first dictionaries printed in England were listings not of English, but of foreign terms. Some of the new coinings from other languages, such as obstupefact, splendidious, deruncinate (to weed), illecebrous (delicate), and aspectable (visible), died by the wayside as the language developed, but many of the borrowings survived.
Latin and Greek contributed thousands of words, among them antipathy, catastrophe, external, erupt, halo, anachronnism, encyclopedia, appendix, emphasis, submerge, strenuous, inflate, infrringement. From French came Bigot, alloy, chocolate, and detail, while balcony, cameo, stanza, and violin were borrowed from Italian. Spanish and Portuguese added alligator, negro, potato, tobacco, cannibal, and many others.
Together with, and partially in reaction to, this habit of borrowing and experimenting with foreign terms, there arose a movement to revive and adapt Old English words, adding to the language such forms as wolfish, briny, astound, doom, filch, and freak. It was largely through scholarly writing and literature that most of the new terms gained admittance to the language. The poets of the period - particularly Spenser and Shak espeare - were notorious coiners and borrowers of words.
In contrast to the tremendous embellishment of its vocabulary, the grammatical structure of English underwent relatively few changes in the sixteenth century. Some time in the last part of the century, a shift in the pronunciation of long vowels settled the pronunciation of English close to what it is today.
Irregularities and variations within the language remained, however. Elizabethan idiom observed no rigid grammatical rules. Shakespeare could, for instance, use phrases like "stranger'd with an oath", "nor this is not my nose neither", "it dislikes me". The grammar seems foreign, but the sense does not. Kneen and knees, shoon and shoes, have wrote or have written, most boldest or most bold - all were equally correct. Service could be pronounced "sarvice", smart could be pronounced "smert". Not surprisingly, the major focus of the following centuries was to be on the continuing movement to standardise English.
The Scottish language. At the very time the English national language was forming, a similar process was developing in another center in the British Isles, namely in Scotland, that was at the time an independent kingdom consisting of four regions. Thus, the Scottish kingdom included both Celtic and Germanic elements. When speaking of this period we can use the term ‘Scottish language’ to denote a Germanic dialect which was one of the Middle English Northern dialects and formed the basis of the Scottish national language. Towards the end of the 13th century a struggle between England and Scotland arose. Soon the Scots led by Robert Bruce rebelled against English rule. A special national language arose in Scotland, which is often called Scots and a separate national literature. Its first document was the poem ‘Bruce’ John Barbour, early in the 15th century king James I composed ‘The Kinges Quhair’(the King’s book). The flourishing of this literary language did not last long. England and Scotlland were united in 1603. Scotland’s language became subordinate to the London norm. However, attempts to revive Scots were often undertaken in later times. The most well-known documents of this kind are the poems by Robert Burns.
Development of the Literary Language. The 17-18th centuries witnessed some great social and political upheavals which influenced the language as well. The most outstanding events of the time were the bourgeois revolution of the 17th century, the Restoration of 1660 and the industrial revolution in the 18th century. But even before these events an important development took place in the history of language.
Until the early 17th century the English language was only spoken in the British Isles. In the 17th century it crossed the borders. With the first settlers in America the language entered the New World. In 1620 the famous ship Mayflower reached North America.
Meanwhile political struggle in Britain became more and more acute and led to civil war, which ended with a puritan victory and proclamation of a Commonwealth in 1649. The language of the Commonwealth belongs to the Early Modern English period, which lasted till about 1660.
The literary language at that time bears a strong imprint of puritan ideology. It is very tangible in a famous Bible translation published in 1611, the authorized version, also often called the king James’ Bible. The translators set themselves the task of achieving a clear and easily intelligible language. But they also strove for a solemn and grand style and would therefore often use archaic expressions.
As for Milton, the greatest poet and writer of the epoch, he created a peculiar style coloured by the Greek and biblical influence, and he cannot be considered to be typical of the literary language of the time.
The language of John Bunyan, whose allegory The Pilgrim’s Progress was published in two instalments, shows a strong influence of biblical tradition. At this time a purist movement arose, which found its literary expression in a book by Thomas Sprat History of the Royal Society. An interesting document of the late 17th century English is Samuel Pepy’s Diary. About the same time an interest arose in the study of living dialects. The first step in this direction was made by John Ray, who published in 1647 a book entitled Collection of English Words Not Generally Used .
Since the mid 17th century a trend makes itself felt against the the somewhat entangled syntactic structures of the preceeding period in favour of shorter and simpler syntactic formations. This trend is represented by John Evelyn, John Dryden, Richard Bentley. Joseph Addison and Richard Steele, publishers of the magazine The Spectator also shared this view typical of Late Modern English.
In the 17-18th centuries a great number of grammarian and orthoepists appeared, who set a task - the establishing of correct language forms. About the middle of the 18th century there appears the tendency to limit the freedom of phonetic and grammatical variants within the national language. The idea of a strict norm in language was expressed with yet greater clarity in a preface appended by Samuel Johnson to his famous Dictionary published in 1755. He preferred the ‘regular and solemn’ pronunciation to the cursory and colloquial. This view is most characteristic of the mid 18th century.
Тема 10.Expansion of English. In the early 17th century the English language penetrated into America. In the course of the following centuries it spread over the greater part of North America and reached the Pacific. On its way westwards the English language overcame its two rivals - French and Spanish. Meanwhile within the British Isles English gradually supplanted the Celtic languages, which had survived since the earliest times. In the extreme South-West of England the Celtic languages died out in the 18th century. In Wales there arose in the late 19th century a tendency to revive the local Celtic language, Welsh and Celtic culture. In 1893 the Welsh University was founded, every year there is the National Welsh Eisteddfod – a singers’ competition. According to a 1961 census, 656000people spoke Welsh, about 26000 spoke Welsh only.
The Celtic language on the Isle of Man called Manx is dying out. In Ireland which was conquered by the English in the early 17th, struggle against English power lasted all through the 17,18th centuries. Struggle against English domination is steadily going on in Northern Ireland in our time. The number of people speaking Irish rose from 300000 in 1929 to 666000 in 1961; however most Irish people speak English.
The English language outside Europe. In the course of the last few centuries the English language spread over various parts of the globe. In the 18th century English penetrated into India and it came under English power. English has not ousted the local language, its sphere is limited to large cities and to certain social layer. In India to-day the English language is a state language alongside the native languages Hindi and Urdu.
In the course of Seven Years’ War the English conquered Canada, which had been French colony. A few decades later English appeared in Australia. During the 16th century the whole of Australia and also New Zealand and many islands in Ocenia were colonized. In the early years of the 20the century the English penetrated into South Africa and made themselves masters of the Cape Colony and of the Transvaal.
In all these territories the English language had to compete with other colonizer’s languages and with those of the local populations. In some cases a compromise was a result. Thus, in Canada English did not entirely supersede French. The French Canadian dialect, which shows a strong influence of English, is still used in several regions of Canada. In the republic of South Africa the Dutch dialect, called Afrikaans, has survives and enjoys equal rights with English.
Countries in order of total speakers
Differences between British English and American English
American English and British English (BrE) differ at the levels of phonology, phonetics, vocabulary, and, to a lesser extent, grammar and orthography. The first large American dictionary, An American Dictionary of the English Language, was written by Noah Webster in 1828; Webster intended to show that the United States, which was a relatively new country at the time, spoke a different dialect from that of Britain.
Differences in grammar are relatively minor, and normally do not affect mutual intelligibility; these include: different use of some verbal auxiliaries; formal (rather than notional) agreement with collective nouns; different preferences for the past forms of a few verbs (e.g. AmE/BrE: learned/learnt, burned/burnt, and in sneak, dive, get); different prepositions and adverbs in certain contexts (e.g. AmE in school, BrE at school); and whether or not a definite article is used, in very few cases (AmE to the hospital, BrE to hospital; contrast, however, AmE actress Elizabeth Taylor, BrE the actress Elizabeth Taylor). Often, these differences are a matter of relative preferences rather than absolute rules; and most are not stable, since the two varieties are constantly influencing each other.[
Differences in orthography are also trivial. Some of the forms that now serve to distinguish American from British spelling (color for colour, center for centre, traveler for traveller, etc.) were introduced by Noah Webster himself; others are due to spelling tendencies in Britain from the 17th century until the present day (e.g. -ise for -ize, although the Oxford English Dictionary still prefers the -ize ending) and cases favored by the francophile tastes of 19th century Victorian England, which had little effect on AmE (e.g. programme for program, manoeuvre for maneuver, skilful for skillful, cheque for check, etc.).
AmE sometimes favors words that are morphologically more complex, whereas BrE uses clipped forms, such as AmE transportation and BrE transport or where the British form is a back-formation, such as AmE burglarize and BrE burgle (from burglar). It should however be noted that these words are not mutually exclusive, being widely understood and mostly used alongside each other within the two systems.
The past tense and past participle of the verbs learn, spoil, spell, burn, dream, smell, spill, leap, and others, can be either irregular (learnt, spoilt, etc.) or regular (learned, spoiled, etc.). In BrE, both irregular and regular forms are current, but for some words (such as smelt and leapt) there is a strong tendency towards the irregular forms, especially by users of Received Pronunciation. For other words (such as dreamed, leaned, and learned) the regular forms are somewhat more common. In AmE, the irregular forms are never or rarely used (except for burnt and leapt).[
The t endings may be encountered frequently in older American texts. Usage may vary when the past participles are used as adjectives, as in burnt toast. (The two-syllable form learnèd /ˈlɜrnɪd/, usually written without the grave, is used as an adjective to mean "educated" or to refer to academic institutions, in both BrE and AmE.) Finally, the past tense and past participle of dwell and kneel are more commonly dwelt and knelt in both standards, with dwelled and kneeled as common variants in the US but not in the UK.
Lit as the past tense of light is more common than lighted in the UK; the regular form is used more in the US, but is nonetheless less common than lit. Conversely, fit as the past tense of fit is more widely used in AmE than BrE, which generally favours fitted.
The past tense of spit "expectorate" is spat in BrE, spit or spat in AmE. AmE typically has spat in figurative contexts, e.g. "He spat out the name with a sneer", or in the context of expectoration of an object that is not saliva, e.g. "He spat out the foul-tasting fish" but spit for "expectorated" when it refers only to the expulsion of saliva.
The past participle of saw is normally sawn in BrE and sawed in AmE (as in sawn-off/sawed-off shotgun).
The past participle gotten is never used in modern BrE, which generally uses got, except in old expressions such as ill-gotten gains. According to the Compact Oxford English Dictionary, "The form gotten is not used in British English but is very common in North American English, though even there it is often regarded as non-standard." In AmE, gotten emphasizes the action of acquiring and got tends to indicate simple possession (for example, Have you gotten it? versus Have you got it?). Gotten is also typically used in AmE as the past participle for phrasal verbs using get, such as get off, get on, get into, get up, and get around: If you hadn't gotten up so late, you might not have gotten into this mess. Interestingly, AmE, but not BrE, has forgot as a less common alternative to forgotten for the past participle of forget.
In BrE, the past participle proved is strongly preferred to proven; in AmE, proven is now about as common as proved. (Both dialects use proven as an adjective, and in formulas such as not proven).
AmE further allows other irregular verbs, such as dive (dove) or sneak (snuck), and often mixes the preterit and past participle forms (spring–sprang, US also sprung–sprung), sometimes forcing verbs such as shrink (shrank–shrunk) to have a further form, thus shrunk–shrunken. These uses are often considered nonstandard; the AP Stylebook in AmE treats some irregular verbs as colloquialisms, insisting on the regular forms for the past tense of dive, plead and sneak. Dove and snuck are usually considered nonstandard in Britain, although dove exists in some British dialects and snuck is occasionally found in British speech.
By extension of the irregular verb pattern, verbs with irregular preterits in some variants of colloquial AmE also have a separate past participle, for example, "to buy": past tense bought spawns boughten. Such formations are highly irregular from speaker to speaker, or even within idiolects. This phenomenon is found chiefly in the northern US and other areas where immigrants of German descent are predominant, and may have developed as a result of German influence. Even in areas where the feature predominates, however, it has not gained widespread acceptance as standard usage.
Use of tenses
Traditionally, BrE uses the present perfect to talk about an event in the recent past and with the words already, just, and yet. In American usage, these meanings can be expressed with the present perfect (to express a fact) or the simple past (to imply an expectation). This American style has become widespread only in the past 20 to 30 years; the British style is still in common use as well. Recently, the American use of just with simple past has made inroads into BrE, most visibly in advertising slogans and headlines such as "Cable broadband just got faster".
"I've just arrived home." / "I just arrived home."
"I've already eaten." / "I already ate."
Similarly, AmE occasionally replaces the past perfect with the simple past.
In BrE, have got or have can be used for possession and have got to and have to can be used for the modal of necessity. The forms that include ‘‘got’’ are usually used in informal contexts and the forms without got in contexts that are more formal. In American speech the form without got is used more than in the UK, although the form with got is often used for emphasis. Colloquial AmE informally uses got as a verb for these meanings – for example, I got two cars, I got to go.
In conditional sentences, US spoken usage often substitutes would and would have (usually shortened to [I]'d and [I]'d have) for the simple past and for the pluperfect (If you'd leave now, you'd be on time. / If I would have [I'd've] cooked the pie we could have [could've] had it for lunch). This tends to be avoided in writing because it is often still considered non-standard although such use of would is widespread in spoken US English in all sectors of society. Some reliable sources now label this usage as acceptable US English and no longer label it as colloquial. (There are, of course, situations where would is used in British English too in seemingly counterfactual conditions, but these can usually be interpreted as a modal use of would: If you would listen to me once in a while, you might learn something.In cases in which the action in the if clause takes place after that in the main clause, use of would in counterfactual conditions is, however, considered standard and correct usage in even formal UK and US usage: If it would make Bill happy, I'd [I would] give him the money.
The subjunctive mood (morphologically identical with the bare infinitive) is regularly used in AmE in mandative clauses (as in They suggested that he apply for the job). In BrE, this usage declined in the 20th century, in favour of constructions such as They suggested that he should apply for the job (or even, more ambiguously, They suggested that he applied for the job). Apparently, however, the mandative subjunctive has recently started to come back into use in BrE.
Shall (as opposed to will) is more commonly used by the British than by Americans.Shan't is almost never used in AmE (almost invariably replaced by won't or am not going to), and is increasingly rare in BrE as well. American grammar also tends to ignore some traditional distinctions between should and would; however, expressions like I should be happy are rather formal even in BrE.
The periphrastic future (be going to) is about twice as frequent in AmE as in BrE.
The following verbs show differences in transitivity between BrE and AmE.
agree: Transitive or intransitive in BrE, usually intransitive in AmE (agree a contract/agree to or on a contract). However, in formal AmE legal writing one often sees constructions like as may be agreed between the parties (rather than as may be agreed upon between the parties).
appeal (as a decision): Usually intransitive in BrE (used with against) and transitive in AmE (appeal against the decision to the Court/appeal the decision to the Court).
catch up ("to reach and overtake"): Transitive or intransitive in BrE, strictly intransitive in AmE (to catch sb up/to catch up with sb). A transitive form does exist in AmE, but has a different meaning: to catch sb up means that the subject will help the object catch up, rather the opposite of the BrE transitive meaning.
cater ("to provide food and service"): Intransitive in BrE, transitive or intransitive in AmE (to cater for a banquet/to cater a banquet).
claim: Sometimes intransitive in BrE (used with for), strictly transitive in AmE.
meet: AmE uses intransitively meet followed by with to mean "to have a meeting with", as for business purposes (Yesterday we met with the CEO), and reserves transitive meet for the meanings "to be introduced to" (I want you to meet the CEO; she is such a fine lady), "to come together with (someone, somewhere)" (Meet the CEO at the train station), and "to have a casual encounter with". BrE uses transitive meet also to mean "to have a meeting with"; the construction meet with, which actually dates back to Middle English, appears to be coming back into use in Britain, despite some commentators who preferred to avoid confusion with meet with meaning "receive, undergo" (the proposal was met with disapproval). The construction meet up with (as in to meet up with someone), which originated in the US, has long been standard in both dialects.
provide: Strictly monotransitive in BrE, monotransitive or ditransitive in AmE (provide sb with sth/provide sb sth).
protest: In sense "oppose", intransitive in BrE, transitive in AmE (The workers protested against the decision/The workers protested the decision). The intransitive protest against in AmE means, "to hold or participate in a demonstration against". The older sense "proclaim" is always transitive (protest one's innocence).
write: In BrE, the indirect object of this verb usually requires the preposition to, for example, I'll write to my MP or I'll write to her (although it is not required in some situations, for example when an indirect object pronoun comes before a direct object noun, for example, I'll write her a letter). In AmE, write can be used monotransitively (I'll write my congressman; I'll write him).
The verbs prevent and stop can be found in two different constructions: "prevent/stop someone from doing something" and "prevent/stop someone doing something". The latter is well established in BrE, but not in AmE.
Some verbs can take either a to+infinitive construction or a gerund construction (e.g., to start to do something/to start doing something). For example, the gerund is more common:
In AmE than BrE, with start,begin,omit,enjoy;
In BrE than AmE, with love,like,intend.
Presence or absence of syntactic elements
Where a statement of intention involves two separate activities, it is acceptable for speakers of AmE to use to go plus bare infinitive. Speakers of BrE would instead use to go and plus bare infinitive. Thus, where a speaker of AmE might say I'll go take a bath, BrE speakers would say I'll go and have a bath. (Both can also use the form to go to instead to suggest that the action may fail, as in He went to take/have a bath, but the bath was full of children.) Similarly, to come plus bare infinitive is acceptable to speakers of AmE, where speakers of BrE would instead use to come and plus bare infinitive. Thus, where a speaker of AmE might say come see what I bought, BrE speakers would say come and see what I've bought (notice the present perfect: a common British preference).
Use of prepositions before days denoted by a single word. Where British people would say She resigned on Thursday, Americans often say She resigned Thursday, but both forms are common in American usage. Occasionally, the preposition is also absent when referring to months: I'll be here December (although this usage is generally limited to colloquial speech).
In the UK, from is used with single dates and times more often than in the United States. Where British speakers and writers may say the new museum will be open from Tuesday, Americans most likely say the new museum will be open starting Tuesday. (This difference does not apply to phrases of the pattern from A to B, which are used in both BrE and AmE.) A variation or alternative of this is the mostly American the play opens Tuesday and the mostly British the play opens on Tuesday.
American legislators and lawyers always use the preposition of between the name of a legislative act and the year it was passed; their British compeers do not. Compare Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 to Disability Discrimination Act 1995.
The definite article
A few 'institutional' nouns take no definite article when a certain role is implied: for example, at sea (as a sailor), in prison (as a convict), and at/in college (for students). Among this group, BrE has in hospital (as a patient) and at university (as a student), where AmE requires in the hospital and at the university (though AmE does allow at college and in school). When the implied roles of patient or student do not apply, the definite article is used in both dialects.
Likewise, BrE distinguishes in future ("from now on") from in the future ("at some future time"); AmE uses in the future for both senses.
AmE omits, and BrE requires, the definite article in a few standard expressions[clarification needed] such as tell (the) time.
In BrE, numbered highways usually take the definite article (for example "the M25", "the A14"); in America they usually do not ("I-495", "Route 66"). Upstate New York, Southern California and Arizona are exceptions, where "the 33", "the 5" or "the 10" are the standard. A similar pattern is followed for named roads (for example, Strand in London is almost always referred to as the Strand), but in America, there are local variations and older American highways tend to follow the British pattern ("the Boston Post Road").
AmE distinguishes in back of [behind] from in the back of; the former is unknown in the UK and liable to misinterpretation as the latter. Both, however, distinguish in front of from in the front of.
Dates usually include a definite article in UK spoken English, such as "the eleventh of July", or "July the eleventh"; American speakers most commonly say "July eleventh" or "July eleven"
Prepositions and adverbs
In the United States, the word through can mean "up to and including" as in Monday through Friday. In the UK (and for many Americans) Monday to Friday, or Monday to Friday inclusive is used instead; Monday through to Friday is also sometimes used. (In some parts of Northern England the term while can be used in the same way, as in Monday while Friday, whereas in Ireland Monday till Friday would be more natural.)
British sportsmen play in a team; American athletes play on a team. (Both may play for a particular team.)
In AmE, the use of the function word out as a preposition in out the door and out the window is standard to mean "out through". For example, in AmE, one jumps "out of a boat" by jumping "out the porthole," and it would be incorrect in standard AmE to "jump out the boat" or climb "out of the porthole." In BrE, out of is preferred in writing for both meanings, but out is common in speech.Several other uses of out of are peculiarly British (out of all recognition, out of the team; cf. above); all of this notwithstanding, out of is overall more frequent in AmE than in BrE (about four times as frequent, according to Algeo.
In much of the Northeastern United States, "on line" (two words) refers to the state of waiting in a line, or queue; for example, standing on a sidewalk waiting for a table at a restaurant. Elsewhere in AmE, one waits "in line" and goes "online" (one word) for email. Usage of "queue" among Americans has increased in the last twenty years. In BrE, queue is the universal term and no variants of line are used in relation to waiting in turn. In BrE, people talk of standing in a queue, queuing up, joining the queue, sitting in a queue (e.g. when driving) and simply queuing.
The word heat meaning "mating season" is used with on and in the UK (Regional Variation) and with in in the US.
The intransitive verb affiliate can take either with or to in BrE, but only with in AmE.
The verb enrol(l) usually takes on in BrE and in in AmE (as in "to enrol(l) on/in a course") and the on/in difference is used when enrolled is dropped (as in "I am (enrolled) on the course that studies....").
In AmE, one always speaks of the street on which an address is located, whereas in BrE in can also be used in some contexts. In suggests an address on a city street, so a service station (or a tourist attraction or indeed a village) would always be on a major road, but a department store might be in Oxford Street. Moreover, if a particular place on the street is specified then the preposition used is whichever is idiomatic to the place, thus "at the end of Churchill Road."
BrE favours the preposition at with weekend ("at (the) weekend(s)"); the constructions on, over, and during (the) weekend(s) are found in both varieties but are all more common in AmE than BrE.
Adding at to the end of a question requesting a location is common in spoken AmE, for example, "where are you at?", but would be considered superfluous in standard BrE (though not in some dialects). However, some south-western British dialects use to in the same context; for example "where are you to?", to mean "where are you".
After talk American can also use the preposition with but British always uses to (that is, I'll talk with Dave / I'll talk to Dave). The American form is sometimes seen as more politically correct in British organisations, inducing the ideal of discussing (with), as opposed to lecturing (to). This is unless talk is being used as a noun; for example: "I'll have a talk with him" in which case this is acceptable in both BrE and AmE.
In both dialects, from is the preposition prescribed for use after the word different: American English is different from British English in several respects. However, different than is also commonly heard in the US, and is often considered standard when followed by a clause (American English is different than it used to be), whereas different to is a common alternative in BrE.
It is common in BrE to say opposite to as an alternative to opposite of, the only form normally found in AmE. The use of opposite as a preposition (opposite the post office) has long been established in both dialects, but appears to be more common in British usage.
The noun opportunity can be followed by a verb in two different ways: opportunity plus to-infinitive ("the opportunity to do something") or opportunity plus of plus gerund ("the opportunity of doing something"). The first construction is the most common in both dialects, but the second has almost disappeared in AmE and is often regarded as a Briticism.
Both British and Americans may say (for example) that a river is named after a state, but "named for a state" would rightly be regarded as an Americanism.
BrE sometimes uses to with near (we live near to the university); AmE avoids the preposition in most usages dealing with literal, physical proximity (we live near the uni
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