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ТЕМАТИЧЕСКИЙ РАЗДЕЛ 5

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ПОВЕЛИТЕЛЬНОЕ НАКЛОНЕНИЕ

Повелительное наклонение выражает приказание или просьбу, побуждение к действию или запрещение, которые могут быть пере­даны в утвердительной и отрицательной форме. Утвердительная форма второго лица повелительного наклоне­ния совпадает с инфинитивом без частицы «to»: Take your books. Meet Ann.

Для более вежливой формы перед глаголом в повелительном наклонении ставится сочетание will you: Will you give me a book, please? В отрицательной форме второго лица повелительного наклоне­ния перед смысловым глаголом ставится вспомогательный глагол doс частицей not, которые часто представляют слитную форму don't:Don't go there. Предложение, выражающее приказание или побуждение, обра­щенное к 1-ему и 3-ему лицам единственного или множественного числа, строится при помощи глагола «let»: Let's go there. Давайте пойдем туда. Let Pete (him) do it. Пусть Петр (он) сделает это. Отрицательная форма конструкций с «let's» образуется при по­мощи don't: Don't let's go there. Давайте не пойдем туда.

ИМЯ СУЩЕСТВИТЕЛЬНОЕ

Имя существительное — часть речи, которая обозначает предмета и отвечает на вопрос кто? что? Множественное число существительных образуется при помощи окончания -s: a dog — dogs. Существительные, оканчивающиеся в единственном чис­ле на -о, -ss, -sh, -ch, -x, образуют множественное число при помо­щи окончания -еs: a watch — watches, a tomato — tomatoes, a kiss — kisses.

Слова иностранного происхождения или сокращенные, оканчивающиеся на , имеют окончание -s: a piano — pianos, a photo — photos.

Существительные, оканчивающиеся на с согласной перед ней, имеют во множественном числе окончание –ies: a baby — babies, a lady — ladies. Ho: a boy — boys, a day — days.

Cуществительные, оканчивающиеся на -f или -fe, во множественном числе имеют окончание –ves: wife, life, knife, wolf, self, calf, shelf, leaf, loaf, chief, sheaf, half - a wife — wives, a knife — knives. Ho: a handkerchief — handkerchiefs, a roof - roofs.

Существительные-исключения:

a man — men – мужчина(ы)

a woman — women – женщина(ы)

a foot — feet – ступня(и)

a mouse — mice – мышь(и)

a goose — geese – гусь(и)

a tooth — teeth – зуб(ы)

a child — children – ребёнок(дети).

Некоторые существительные в единственном и множественном числе имеют одну форму: fish, sheep, deer, aircraft.

Существительное с приставкой man, woman имеют множествен­ное число в обеих частях слова: a manservant — menservants.

Существительные, в состав которых входит предлог или наре­чие, имеют окончание -s в первой его части: a mother-in-law — mothers-in-law.

TEXT 5 Great Britain

 

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the British Isles. The British Isles consist of two large islands: Great Britain and Ireland, and about five thousand small islands. Their total area is over 244,000 square kilometers. The United Kingdom is made up of four countries: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh Cardiff and Belfast respectively. Great Britain consists of England, Scotland and Wales and does not include Northern Ireland. But in everyday speech Great Britain is used to mean the United Kingdom. The capital of the UK is London.



The British Isles are separated from the European continent by the North Sea and the English Channel. The western coast of Great Britain is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea. The surface of the British Isles varies very much. The north of Scotland is mountainous and is called the Highlands, while the south, which has beautiful valleys and plains, is called the Lowlands. The north and west of England are mountainous, but all the rest-east, center and south-east is - a vast plain. Mountains are not very high. Ben Nevis in Scotland is the highest mountain (1343 m). There are a lot of rivers in Great Britain, but they are not very long. The Severn is the longest river, while the Thames is the deepest and the most important one. The mountains, the Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters of Gulf Stream influence the climate of the British Isles. It is mild the whole year round.

The UK is one of the world's smaller countries. Its population is over 57 million. About 80% of the population is urban. The UK is a highly developed industrial country. It is known as one of the world's largest producers and exporters of machinery, electronics, textile, aircraft and navigation equipment. One of the chief industries of the country is shipbuilding.

The UK is a constitutional monarchy. In law, the Head of State is the Queen. In practice, the Queen reigns, but doesn't rule. The elected government rules the country with the Prime Minister at the head. The British Parliament consists of two chambers: the House of Lords and the House of Commons. There are three main political parties in Great Britain: the Labour, the Conservative and the Liberal parties. The Conservative party is the ruling party nowadays.

Questions:

1. The UK is an island state, isn't it? Where is it situated?

2. What countries is the UK made of? What are their capitals?

3. What channel separates the British Isles from the European continent?

4. The surface of the British Isles varies very much, doesn't it?

5. What is the north of Scotland called? What is the south of Scotland called?

6. What's the highest mountain in Scotland?

7. Are there a lot of long and deep rivers in Great Britain?

8. Why is the climate of the British Isles mild?

9. Is the UK a large country?

10. What's the UK's population?

The USA

The United States of America stretches from the Atlantic Ocean across North America and far into the Pacific. Because of such a huge size of the country the climate dif­fers from one part of the country to another. The coldest climate is in the northern part, where there is heavy snow in win­ter and the temperature may go down to 40 degrees below zero. The south has a subtropical climate, with temperature as high as 49 degrees in summer.

The continental part of the USA consists of the highland regions and two lowland regions. The highland regions are the Appalachian mountains in the east and the Cordillera in the west. Between the Cordillera and the Appalachian mountains are the central lowlands which are called the prairie, and eas­tern lowlands called the Mississippi valley.

There are many mountains especially in the west and south­west. The Rocky Mountains extend all the way from New Me­xico to Alaska.

Many rivers cross the country. The most important are the Mississippi, the Missouri, the Colorado, and the Sacramento. The main lakes in the USA are the Great Lakes in the north.

The nation's natural advantages and resources are proba­bly greater than those of any other area of equal size.

The land is as varied as it is huge. There are plains and mountains, grasslands and forests, sandy soil, clay and rich, dark loams. The mineral resources vary from precious gold and rare uranium to common lead and zinc. Coal, oil, iron, copper and other minerals are abundant. They form basis of modern industry.

The history of the USA dates back only to the 15th centu­ry. In the 15th century there was no USA at all. The present territory of the USA was divided among some countries. In the 15th — 16th centuries some territory of the USA belonged to Great Britain (northern and western lands); southern parts (California, Florida, New Mexico, Texas) belonged to Spain, then — to Mexico; the central part, the territory was called Louisiana — to France; Alaska was possessed by Russia; some territories remained to be under Indians control.

In 18th century there were only thirteen Britain's Ameri­can colonies and they broke with Great Britain in 1776 and later were recognized as the new nation of the the United States of America, following the Treaty of Paris in 1783. During the 19th and 20th centuries, 37 new states were added to the ori­ginal 13 as the nation expanded their frontiers across the North American continent and acquired a number of overseas possessions.

There were three most dramatic experiences in the nation's history: the Civil War (1861-1865), the Great Depression of the 1930s and Vietnam War of the 1960s — 70s. After its victories in World Wars I and II and the end of the Cold War in 1991, the USA remains the world's most pow­erful state. The economy is marked by steady growth, low un­employment and inflation, and great advances in technology.

Nowadays USA is world's third-largest country by size (af­ter Russia and Canada) and by population (after China and India). The total territory of the USA is 9,630,000 sq km. It is about half the size of Russia or lightly larger than China or Brazil. The USA has borders with Canada, Mexico and Rus­sian Federation. The lowest point is Death Valley — 86 m and the highest one is Mount McKinley 6,194 m.

By July 2002, the population of the USA was about 280,565,000. The largest US river is the Mississippi River.

It is a multicultural and multinational country. As to reli­gion there are 56% of Protestants, 28% of Catholics and 2% of Jews. Ethnic groups include white 77%, black 13%, Asian 4.5%.

It is a federal republic with strong democratic traditions. The capital of the US is Washington, DC. The country includes 50 states and 1 district plus dependent areas as: Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, etc.

Independence Day is celebrated on 4 July (from Great Bri­tain). Constitution Day is 17 September, which was approved in 1787.

The chief of state is President George W. BUSH (since 20 January 2001) and Vice President Richard B. Cheney (since 20 January 2001); note — the president is both the chief of state and head of government.

There are three political parties in the USA. They are Demo­cratic Party, Green Party and Republican Party. Do you know that among American people, the Democratic Party is associ­ated with mother (mom) and Republican Party is associated with dad (father)? It is a very interesting fact. The currency of the USA is US dollar.

Questions:

1. Is the USA the largest country in the world?

2.What is the total territory of the USA?

3.What is the lowest point of the USA?

4.What is the highest point of the USA?

5.How many people live in the USA today?

6.What city is the capital of the USA?

7.How many states are there in the USA? When do they celebrate their Independence Day?

8.Who is the chief of state?

9. How many political parties are there in the USA?

10.What is the currency of the USA?

Vocabulary:

The United Kingdom of Great Britain Соединенное Королевство Великобритании

and Northern Ireland и Северной Ирландии

the British Isles Британские острова

to be situated быть расположенным

to consist of состоять из

total area общая площадь

respectively соответственно

to include включать

at the head во главе

parliament парламент

chamber палата

to separate разделять

to wash омывать

surface поверхность

to vary менять(ся), разнообразить

mountainous гористый

valley долина

vast огромный

plain равнина

deep глубокий

to influence влиять

climate климат

mild мягкий, умеренный

the whole year round круглый год

population население

urban городской

highly developed высокоразвитый

textile текстиль

aircraft самолеты

navigation судоходство

equipment оборудование

chief главный, основной

shipbuilding кораблестроение

constitutional monarchy конституционная монархия

law закон

in law по закону

the head of the state глава государства

queen королева

in practice фактически, на практике

to reign царствовать

to rule править

to elect выбирать

government правительство

Prime Minister премьер-министр

to stretch, to extend простираться

to consist состоять

advantage преимущество

equal равный

clay глина

precious драгоценный

diverse разнообразный

semiarid полупустынный

coal уголь

copper медь

lead свинец

timber древесина

hazard риск, опасность

mud грязь

slide оползень

earthquake землетрясение

wet мокрый, сырой

the Appalachians горы Аппалачи

semidesert полупустыня

desert пустыня

severe суровый

main land mass континентальная часть

border граница

shores побережье

 

Dialogue:

- What kind of country is Great Britain?

- Great Britain is a capitalist country.

- What chambers does the British Parliament consist of?

- It consists of two chambers: the House of Lords and the House of Commons.

- Whom do the chambers consists of ?

- The House of Lords has 850 members, composed of the lords. The House of Commons consists of 630 members, who are elected by ballot.

- What political parties are there in Great Britain?

- At present there are the following political parties in Great Britain: the Conservatives, the Labour Party, the Liberals and the Communist Party.

- Which party is in power now?

- At present the Labour is in power.

- Whose interest does the Labour Party serve?

- In reality the Labour party serves the interests of the English bourgeoisie. The only party that serves the interests of the English working people is the Communist Party.

Translate into English:

1. Соединенное Королевство Великобритании и Северной Ирландии расположено на Британских островах, состоящих из двух больших и тысяч малых островов.

2. Британские острова омываются Атлантическим океаном, Ирландским морем, Северным морем и проливами Ла-Манш и Па-де-Кале.

3. На климат Великобритании оказывает влияние Гольфстрим.

4. Великобритания производит и экспортирует станки, электронику, текстиль, суда.

5. Великобритания - конституционная монархия.

6. Нынешняя террито­рия США была разделена между несколькими государства­ми.

7. За 19-е и 20-е столетия было присоединено 37 новых штатов к первым 13, так как нация расширила свои грани­цы по всему североамериканскому континенту.

8. После своих побед в Пер­вой и Второй мировых войнах и по окончании холодной войны в 1991 году США остается самым сильным государ­ством в мире.

9. В экономике наблюдается постоянный рост и большие достижения в технологии.

10. В настоящее время США — третья страна в мире по пло­щади территории (после России и Канады) и населению (пос­ле Китая и Индии).

ПРОСЬБА

Наиболее часто просьба оформляется при помощи повелительного наклонения глаголов и слова «пожалуйста»:

Дай... Give...

Сделай... Do...

Напиши... Write...

Пожалуйста, дай... Please give me.../Will you please give me...
Просьба, стилистически повышенная и наиболее вежливая, заключается в выражениях:

Сделайте одолжение, дайте, пожалуйста,... Could you do me a favour and give me..., please?

Окажите любезность, дайте, пожалуйста,... Would you kindly give me..., please?

Формы с глаголом «хотеть»:

Я хочу (хотел бы) попросить I'd like (to ask) you to...

Мне хочется (хотелось бы) вас Could I ask you to...?

попросить...

Могу я попросить вас...? May I ask you to do smth.?

Категорическая просьба к собеседнику, чтобы он не делал чего-либо
нежелательного, содержится в конструкции:

Я просил бы вас... I do ask you...

Я просил бы вас не шуметь. Quiet, please!

Просьба о разрешении что-либо сделать:

Можно мне...? May I...?

Можно ли мне...? Саn I...?


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