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Multicriteria classifying

Multicriteria classifying


2.2. Classifying on the contract’s subject


For purposes of analysis, legal scholars have classified contracts in many different ways. The most common classifications of contracts include: "express"and "implied" contracts; "void" and "voidable" contracts; and "enforceable"and "unenforceable" contracts.

Express and Implied Contracts

Express contracts, which may be written or oral, are contracts in which the terms of the agreement made are explicitly stated: when a valid offer is accepted, an express contract has been created. Implied contracts, usually referred to as "implied in fact," are contracts that are formed by the behavior of the parties in the absence of directly negotiating the specifics of the transaction. Making an appointment with a repairman to have a broken washing machine fixed is an implied contract--the repairman may reasonably expect to be paid for making the repairs. The term "implied in fact" is used to distinguish this type of implicit arrangement from an "implied in law" contract, or "quasi-contract." A quasi-contract is not an actual contract; it is a non-binding legal mechanism used in special circumstances to prevent one party from beingseverely harmed or unjustly enriched by an implicit arrangement.

Void and Voidable Contracts

The term "void contract" is an oxymoron--a contract held to be void does notexist under law. In other words, although two parties may have come to an agreement, it is not recognized as a legal contract. Perhaps the simplest example of a void contract is a contract formed in which one party agrees to perform an illegal act. A contract that is illegal in part may be void in that respect, however, it is still a valid contract if the deletion of the illegal portion of the contract does not defeat the purpose of the broader agreement. Agreements in which an essential feature of a valid contract is lacking, are void contracts as well. Voidable contracts are contracts that may be canceled by one of the two parties involved. A contract may be voidable for various reasons, but in most cases a voidable contract provides for one of the parties to withdraw from the agreement without penalty.

Enforceable and Unenforceable Contracts

A contract may be enforceable or unenforceable. An enforceable contract is one for which a legal remedy is offered in the event that the contract is not fulfilled. A contract may be unenforceable when certain statutory requirementshave not been met. For example, an oral contract to buy land would not be enforceable because the Statute of Frauds requires such an agreement to be in writing. Similarly, statutes of limitations, which limit the length of time available for legal action, may apply to contracts of certain types and renderthem unenforceable after a certain period of time.


Contracts also are divided into:

I Contracts dependent for their validity upon their form alone, or strictly formal contracts.These are:

- Contracts of record. The obligations which are styled "contracts of record" are: Judgments of courts of record, whether entered by consent or rendered in invitum. In the latter case, however, the obligation is quasi contractual, and not contractual; recognizances, which are obligations, entered into before a court of record, to do or forbear from doing a certain thing under a penalty.

- Contracts under seal. In such contructs the recitals are conclusive against the partie: they are said to be estopped thereby; it merges a prior simple contract ; a right of action is not barred until the lapse of a longer time than in case of simple contracts; no consideration is necessary.

II. Simple or parol contracts,which may be divided into-

- Such contracts as are dependent for their validity both on their form and on the presence of consideration. These are contracts not under seal, nor of record, but which are required by law to be in writing, either with or without a particular form.

- Such contracts as are dependent for their validity upon the presence of consideration alone, no form at all being required.

There are two classes of contracts which at common law depend for their validity upon their form alone. These are contracts under seal and contracts of record. They are strictly formal contracts. All other contracts are called "simple" or "parol" contracts, and depend for their validity upon the presence of consideration. Some of these contracts are also required to be in writing, as in the case of bills of exchange and promissory notes, in the case of which a particular form is also required, and contracts within the statute of frauds; so that they depend for their validity upon their form as well as upon the presence of consideration. Simple contracts, not required by the common law or by statute to be in writing, may be made by word of mouth, or by conduct, as we have explained in treating of offer and acceptance. They need no particular form, but depend for their validity upon the presence of consideration alone.

All of these contracts, except contracts under seal and contracts of record, are called "simple" or "parol" contracts. The word "parol" strictly means "by word of mouth," and excludes writing; but the term is applied to all simple contracts, whether they are merely oral or required to be in writing. They all require consideration, the only distinction being in the fact that some must be in writing.

We shall now deal with the contracts of record and contracts under seal, and in following chapters with those forms which are superimposed upon simple contracts, and with consideration, the requisite common to all simple contracts.

2.2. Classifying on the contract’s subject


International contracts can be classified by subject like these (table 5.1.)


Table 5.1

Types of Contracts

1. agency agreement договор о посредничестве
2. agreement of purchase and sale договор о купле-продаже
3. agreement of purchase and sale соглашение о купле-продаже
4. agreement on know-how, agreement about know-how соглашение о ноу-хау
5. agreement to sell соглашение о продаже
6. agreement with an agency договор с агентством
7. annuity contract договор об аннуитете
8. annuity contract, annuity insurance policy договор страхования ренты
9. arbitration treaty договор об арбитраже
10. articles of set, contract of tenancy, tack договор аренды
11. association agreement договор о сотрудничестве
12. bargain договор о покупке
13. bargain and sale, sale contract, sales contract, sale agreement, agreement of sale, purchase contract договор купли-продажи
14. building contract договор строительного подряда
15. charter party договор о фрахтовании
16. clearing agreement соглашение о клиринговых расчетах
17. collection agreement соглашение об инкассировании
18. commission, contract of agency договор поручения
19. consultancy agreement договор о консультировании
20. contract for the construction контракт о строительстве
21. contract for the sale, sales contract контракт на продажу
22. contract of adhesion договор присоединения
23. contract of agency договор о поручении
24. contract of air transportation договор воздушной перевозки
25. contract of carriage контракт на перевозку
26. contract of carriage договор перевозки
27. contract of debt договор займа
28. contract of engagement договор найма
29. contract of guarantee договор о поручительстве
30. contract of guarantee договор поручительства
31. contract of indemnity, indemnity contract договор гарантии
32. contract of insurance, insurance contract, insurance agreement договор страхования
33. contract of purchase договор купли
34. contract of sale договор продажи
35. contract of tenancy договор имущественного найма
36. contract with a reservation контракт с оговоркой
37. contractor's agreement договор подряда
38. control agreement соглашение о контроле
39. cooperation agreement соглашение о сотрудничестве
40. copartnery , terms of partnership договор товарищества
41. cost-plus contract контракт с наценкой
42. development contract договор на разработку
43. development contract, building contract контракт на строительство
44. developmental contract контракт на разработку
45. distribution license лицензия дистрибутора
46. employment agreement, contract of work and labour, labour contract, hiring договор личного найма
47. employment contract контракт личного найма
48. excess-of-loss reinsurance treaty договор эксцендентного перестрахования
49. exclusive license agreement договор исключительной лицензии
50. financing arrangements соглашения о финансировании
51. fixture договор фрахтования
52. franchise договор франшизы (договор о реализации торговым предприятием изделий промышленного предприятия )
53. gaming contract, wagering contract договор пари
54. hire contract договор о найме
55. import license лицензия на импорт (документ, дающий право на ввоз товаров в какую-либо страну)
56. improvement patent патент на усовершенствование
57. indemnification agreement соглашение о компенсации
58. investment contract договор об инвестировании
59. land contract договор о землевладении
60. lease (contract), provisions of a lease договор аренды
61. leasing contract договор об аренде
62. licence лицензия (по лицензии — under license государственная лицензия — state licence лишать лицензии — to withdraw a franchise)
63. license for production лицензия на производство
64. license to manufacture лицензия на изготовление
65. license to sell лицензия на сбыт
66. license to use лицензия на использование
67. licentiate лиценциат
68. loan agreement договор о ссуде
69. non-disclosure agreement соглашение о неразглашении (напр. соглашение с потенциальным лицензиатом о неразглашении «ноу-хау» или изобретения, являющихся предметом возможной лицензии )
70. nonpatent licence лицензия на ноу-хау
71. obligatory reinsurance treaty договор облигаторного перестрахования
72. operating agreement договор на эксплуатацию
73. operating agreement договор об эксплуатации
74. patent (for, on), licence (for) патент (подавать заявку на патент — to apply for a patent; охраняться патентом — to be covered by patents; выдавать патент ( кому-л. ) - to grant a patent (to); получать патент - to take out a patent)
75. patent for invention, patent for an invention патент на изобретение
76. patentee владелец патента
77. payments agreement, arrangement about payments соглашение о платежах
78. price agreement, price arrangement соглашение о ценах
79. process patent патент на способ
80. procurement contract контракт на закупки
81. procurement contract, delivery contract, contract for delivery, contract of delivery контракт на поставку (оборудования и т.п. )
82. product patent патент на изделие
83. project agreement соглашение о проектах
84. purchase contract контракт на закупку
85. purchasing arrangement соглашение о закупках
86. retainer договор с адвокатом
87. sponsoring agreement соглашение о финансировании
88. storage contract договор складирования
89. study contract контракт на изучение
90. subcontract договор с субконтрагентом
91. subordination agreement соглашение о подчинении
92. supply agreement договор поставки
93. tariff agreement соглашение о тарифах
94. transportation contract договор о перевозках
95. turnkey contract контракт под ключ
96. user permit лицензия на пользование
97. vendor contract договор на поставку



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