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The history of ball games

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  1. The history of the Olympic Games

The Ancient Greeks and Romans are known to have played many ball games. Some of these games involved the usage of balls, hands and feet. The Roman politician Cicero (106-43 BC) described the case with a man who had been killed in the barber’s shop when a ball was kicked into a window of the office.

Roman ball games were widely spread and a lot of people used to play air-filled balls in the fields and on the sport grounds. Documental evidence of physical activities resembling football and volleyball can be found in the Chinese military troops and existed between the 3rd century and 1st century BC.

The people described a popular sport practice known as the game where young men were kicking a ball using their hands and feet. The game originally called a kick-ball and involved the process of kicking a leather ball through a small hole in a piece of a silk cloth which was fixed on bamboo canes and hung about 9 inches above the ground.

During the Han Dynasty (206 BC–220 AD), ball games were standardized and many strict rules were established. Variations of this game were spread in Japan and all people liked the game. Later a feather-stuffed ball was replaced by an air-filled ball and the ball games had become professional games where people got money. Professional players were included in different teams. These different teams played with each other.

An official volleyball team is made up of six players who rotate through six playing positions: left forward, centre back and right back behind the front positions. The opening of the game is the serve (подача), which is made by the right back player. He continues to serve until the team loses possession of the serve. The ball must be played in the air and must be clearly hit. It may not be thrown or lifted. The game is played back over the net until one team fails to return the ball.

 

Vocabulary

 

ball games игра с мячом
barber’s shop парикмахерская
to serve подавать (мяч)
to kick бить ногой
resembling напоминающий
on bamboo canes бамбуковая палочка
silk cloth шелковая ткань
strict rules строгие правила
feather-stuffed ball набитый перьями мяч
to replace менять

 

1.Раскройте скобки, употребив нужную видо-временную форму глагола.

1) You (to see) this match already?

2) He (to be) in the sport festival last year?

3) You (to play) the football?

4) You ever (to write) a letter to a sports coach?

5) I saw Tom yesterday but I (not to see) him today.

2. Преобразуйте предложения, употребляя конструкцию there is/there are. Например: I see many players in the field.

There are many players in the field.

1) I see a man in the street.

2) We saw many trees in the resort.

3) The children have many games at school.

4) We see many sportsmen in the festival.

5) We have many Olympic Games in the world.

Помните, что вопросы к подлежащему образуются без вспомогательного глагола

Например: My friend likes apples.

Who likes apples?

3. Задайте вопросы к подлежащему.

1) Somebody took active part in the competition. Who …?

2) She has found a new way to the skating rink. Who …?



3) My brother was among runners. Who …?

4) My sister is reading a magazine. Who … ?

5) He likes to play football. Who …?

4. Напишите эти предложения в Present Perfect, не забудьте сделать соответствующие изменения

1) She is the first year student of our faculty.

2) They are tired.

3) We are late.

4) The coach draws attention to elements of style.

5) In figure skating you must begin to skate very early.

6) He shouted at me in the morning.

7) I performed difficult exercises.

5.Перефразируйте данные словосочетания в предложениях, употребляя притяжательный падеж.

Например: The face of the girl is beautiful.

The girl’s face is beautiful.

1) The ball of the boy is nice.

2) The rooms of the girls were changed.

3) The game of these players is interesting.

4) He was a pupil of a famous coach.

5) The name of a player was Pele.

6) The boy is a younger son of my friend.

7) The book of a student.

6. Образуйте вопросы к предложениям, начиная с вопросительных слов в скобках.

1) The participants of international team are returning next week. (When)

2) We are doing difficult exercises now. (What)

3) The coach is teaching a young athlete to jump. (Who)

4) They were still training when I entered the room. (What)

5) He is coming tomorrow. (When)

 

УРОК 6

 

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There are a number of references to traditional, ancient, or prehistoric ball games, which were played by people in many parts of the world. For example, in 1586, men from a ship commanded by an English explorer John Davis went ashore to play a form of football with (Eskimo) people in Greenland. Each match began with a signal when two teams were facing each other and began running with a ball, they attempted to kick the ball through each other team's line. The line was in the middle of the field.

The history of football games goes back almost as far as that of cricket. Here is a statement describing a set of rules.

“The players form two teams and the game is started when a person throws the ball into the air from half-way line that separates the teams. As soon as the ball is in the air, the players make a dash for it, the aim is to run with the ball and touch the ground upon a line behind the opponents”.

The game resulted from a famous afternoon at Rugby School in the early part of the nineteenth century, when William Ellis picked up a football team and made them professional players.

The team sport game that has the greatest spectators’ interest today began to take an organized form in 1890. It quickly became the most popular organized sport for participants and spectators.

In the early days in Russia the game was played, first of all, by the British among themselves and, a little later, by mixed teams of British and Russians. The Russian people were mainly students, cadets and clerks. In 1894, Harry Charnock, a general manager of Morozov’s mills, introduced a game called soccer or football among his workers. He wanted workers to change their lifestyle, connecting it with health and pleasure. At first it was played during Shrovetide when a lot of people gathered and made the boundary markers on the ground. They played a quick ball game and soon it became very popular in our country and known as a mob football.

Vocabulary

 

reference ссылка
spectator зритель
the boundary markers отметки границ
a mob football футбол для толпы
Shrovetide Масленица

 

Страдательный залог The Passive Voice

Он представляет собой сложную форму, которая образуется при помощи глагола to be в соответствующем времени, лице и числе и причастия прошедшего времени смыслового глагола

to be+Participle II (Past Participle),

причастие хорошо известно как третья форма глагола. Помните, что у правильных глаголов прошедшее причастие имеет окончание - ed, у неправильных нет определенного окончания, поэтому форму прошедшего причастия неправильных глаголов лучше всего уточнить в таблице неправильных глаголов.

Обратите внимание, что первый компонент сказуемого глагол to be или to have является величиной переменной, а последующий вспомогательный глагол (там, где он есть) и смысловой глагол - величины постоянные. Каждое сказуемое заканчивается смысловым глаголом в Participle II. Действие в предложении направлено на лицо или предмет, выраженный подлежащим.

Например: He is often seen in the swimming pool. - Его часто видят в бассейне.

She was sent to the competition. - Ее послали на соревнования.

The letter will be sent to the sport Club.-Письмо пошлют в спортивный

  Indefinite Continuous Perfect
to be + V3 to be being + V3 to have been + V3
Present am is + V3 are am is being + V3 are have been + V3 has
Past was + V3 were was being + V3 were   had been + V3
Future shall be + V3 will   – shall have been + V3 will

 

1. Определите видо-временные формы глаголов в страдательном залоге и переведите предложения.

1) Our sportsmen are often spoken about in the news.

2) The boxer was asked to take part in the contest.

3) Have you been invited to the fitness club?

4) The fitness exercises are being practiced in the next room.

5) The results will not be announced till 4 o’clock.

6) “What is being played?” - asked my sister.

7) Russian was spoken in many countries not long ago.

2. Переведите предложения. Помните, что каждому времени сказуемого соответствует определенное обстоятельство времени.

1) He was seen in the hall five minutes ago.

2) Our coach has been invited to the tea already.

3) The sport suit hasn’t been bought yet.

4) The hall is cleaned after each contest.

5) The hall is being cleaned now.

6) The swimming pool will be repaired next year.

7) The sport complex will have been finished by spring.

3.Употребите следующие предложения в пассивном залоге.

1) People of our country play different games.

2) They will discuss a lot of sport problems.

3) Many writers wrote about the history of football.

4) A sportsman has done a lot of work.

5) The coach invited all talented students.

6) The player will write an article.

7) The skater has done his work already.

4.Вставьте подходящие по смыслу модальные глаголы.

1) A lot of children … play football.

2) Nick … run long distances.

3) I … do my morning exercises.

4) You ... go there at once.

5) … you show me a new style of boxing?

6) You … do it now.

5. Переведите следующие предложения.

1) Ты можешь помочь мне?

2) Я должна идти домой.

3) Когда ты должна быть дома?

4) Ты можешь взять мой футбольный мяч.

5) Тебе следует знать правила игры.

6) Не нужно делать такие трудные упражнения.

7) Ты мог бы написать об этом раньше.

6. Перепишите следующие предложения, используя Present Progressive Tense.

Например:He always runs in the morning.

He is running now.

1) We play football.

2) The girl reads English book.

3) Who speaks English?

4) Somebody scores the goal.

5) The sportsman opens the window.

6) Americans play a lot of basketball.

7) The universities compete against each other.

7. Вставьте much или many, a lot в следующих предложениях.

1) Don’t play football … .

2) We have … books.

3) There are … players in the team.

4) … of the answers were excellent.

5) We have … time for a game.

6) They usually train …

7) How … players are the team made up?

 

Урок 7

 

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