Basketball is a very popular game in America. The official basketball season is usually during the winter, but it is game which can be played at any time of the year. Basketball is played on a court. The game is played with a large ball about 30 inches. A team is made up of five players.
In the United States, teams compete in basketball at many levels. There is a professional league called the National Basketball Association (NBA), primary and secondary schools and universities compete against each other, and in many towns there are local leagues in which anyone who wishes may play in a team. Basketball is also popular spectators’ sport. Many Americans like to watch basketball games in arenas and on television.
Basketball is a very exciting game which can be played formally, in a league, or casually, just for enjoyment. It is easy to organize a game wherever there is a court, and many Americans play a lot of basketball for exercise and recreation. We may say that it is a sport and pleasure.
local leagues местные лиги
spectator sport спорт для зрителей (зрелищный)
1.Переведите следующие предложения и определите время и залог глагола-сказуемого.
1) I used to read books.
2) The text was read by many students.
3) The game starts at 6 in the evening.
4) The players were seen in the field.
5) The play will be seen by a lot of people.
6) This game is played all the year round.
2.Напишите данные предложения в пассивном залоге.
1) He has not seen the results of the match.
2) The spectators saw a man in the street.
3) I shall have translated the text by 3 o’clock.
4) Have you spoken with your friend today?
5) The students have gone to the celebration.
Participle I и Participle II в предложениях выполняют следующие функции:
Часть глагола сказуемого.
После глагола to be для образования пассивных конструкций, I was sent for at once.
После глагола to have для образования времени группы Perfect. We have never been to London.
Перед существительным или после существительного, The fried fish was tasty.
The boy standing at the window is my brother.
Having done our work, we went to the cinema.
После союзов when, if.
When entered the room we saw a big figure of a doctor.
3. Определите функции причастий в следующих предложениях.
1) The man was reading a book near a window.
2) He was invited to the contest so he had to work hard.
3) Being busy, he refused to go with us.
4) The boy smiling so kindly is my friend.
5) She was asked to explain her point of view.
6) Having lost the key, we had to go for a walk.
4.Напишите следующие предложения в прошедшем времени.
1) She finds difficulties in any task.
2) I find him attractive.
3) The road leads to a swimming pool.
4) The rope holds his weight.
5) There are no vacant seats.
5. Напишите 3 формы глаголов.
To go, to write, to sleep, to read, to repeat, to run, to know
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In the first decade of the 20th century, the famous Russian figure skater Nikolai Panin denominated Russian, European and world figure-skating his professional way of skating and won a gold medal in 1908 during London Olympic Games. He was a very famous sportsman. In speed-skating the Russians continued to do well and showed great results. In 1910 and 1911, Nikolai Strunnikov won European and then world titles and set a world record that remained unsurpassed for 17 years.
The following year, however, he left the sport in protest against the parsimonious attitude of the Russian authorities, having been refused in financial support. He had no money for his journeys to compete abroad. His vacant European title was won in 1913 by Vasily Ippolitov, who became a well known figure skater very quickly.
Moscow became the first skiing centre to organize skiing contests with the establishment of the famous Moscow Skiers Society in 1895. In 1910 a famous league was set up with ten member clubs and a National Skiers’ Association was founded, so they initiated the first national ski championship over 32 km. It was very difficult but exciting practice.
Long skiing distance became very popular in 1911. There were four Moscow skiers, who completed the Moscow-St. Petersburg run (a distance of 725 km) lasted 12 days, 6 hours and 22 minutes. The next year, the first ski-jumping contests were held at a small village Pargolovo, near the capital.
1.Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на залог.
1) The delegation was headed by the Minister of Sport Association.
2) The children were educated.
3) The figure-skating is much spoken about.
4) She will be invited to the contest.
5) The young sportsmen are often looked after.
6) The book is often referred to.
2. Раскройте скобки, употребив нужную видо-временную форму глагола.
1) You (see) a new competition yesterday?
2) He (be) at the cinema with you?
3) The pupils (not to do) morning exercises.
4) We are late. The contest already (start) by the time we get to the place.
5) You (see) the ski-jumping contest?
6) The sportsman (to do) his exercises already when we entered the room.
Модальные глаголы не выражают действие, а лишь отношение к действиям. Глаголы can (could), may (might), must, ought, need являются модальными глаголами. Данные глаголы не употребляются самостоятельно, а в сочетании с инфинитивом смыслового глагола. Они обозначают возможность, вероятность, необходимость совершения действий.
Модальный глагол must употребляется для выражения необходимости, долженствования.
I must do it now. - Я должен сделать это сейчас. Must в сочетании с Indefinite Infinitive Passive переводится следующим образом:
The work must be done. - Эта работа должна быть сделана. The task may be changed. –Задача может быть изменена.
Эквивалентами модального глагола must являются модальные глаголы to have to, to be to. I must do it. = I have to do it. Модальный глагол must имеет форму настоящего времени, и поэтому для выражения долженствования в прошедшем времени в предложении «Он должен был надеть плащ» мы употребляем эквивалент модального глагола, to have to в прошедшем времени.- He had to put on the raincoat.
3.Прочитайте и переведите следующие предложения.
1) He may do it at once.
2) We must get up early in the morning.
3) He might have done it.
4) You ought to read the rules.
5) They will have to ask him.
4. Переведите следующие предложения, используя модальные глаголы.
1) Вы умеете кататься на лыжах?
2) Наши спортсмены должны принимать участие в соревновании.
3) Кто может ответить на вопрос?
4) Поезд должен отправиться в 5 часов.
5. Переведите вопросы на английский язык, для этого модальный глагол выносится на первое место в вопросе.
Например: Могу я открыть окно?- May I open the window?
1) Что вы должны сделать?
2) Можно я помогу вам?
3) Вы можете объяснить это правило?
4) Мне нужно быть на совещании?
5) Кто может пробежать как этот спортсмен?
6) Нужно ли спрашивать об этом?
7) Кому следует сказать об этом?
6. Измените предложения, в которых глагол-сказуемое употреблен в активном залоге, в предложения с глаголом-сказуемым в пассивном залоге по образцу.
Образец: Everyone can watch the basketball contest.-
The basketball contest can be watched.
1) You can read the article.
2) You must train difficult exercises.
3) The students were to learn the poem.
4) You should know the rules of the game.
5) You must do it at once.
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Physical fitness exercises have been practiced in China for thousands of years. The ancient Chinese were well aware of the importance of physical fitness and always sought different ways and methods of improving their exercises.
In recent years, many physical education institutions, sanatoriums and hospitals in China have created a variety of remedial exercises which were very helpful. The Chinese assimilated useful elements from traditional exercises and developed them. These exercises are based on modern theories of anatomy, sport physiology and biomechanics. These new exercises are designed to suit the needs of different people with different diseases and problems.
This system of exercises may be practiced in the morning and in the evening. Persistent practice in these exercises will sharpen your appetite, help you to sleep more soundly and increase your resistance to diseases.
Follow the recommendation and try to do these exercises properly. Here is a good exercise: Sit upright, stretch legs forward, feet at your shoulder-width apart. Place palms on the floor in your sides, thumbs should touch the body, fingers should point forward. You must always look straight ahead. It is necessary to do these exercises every day it will improve your memory.
Bent forward, and use your hands to grasp the ball and the toes of the foot. Pull back the top of the foot as you thrust the heel forward. Repeat with the other foot. Eyes should follow the foot that moves. Remember that you should take a deep breath each time. The most important thing is breathing and concentration on your body.
1.Вставьте подходящие местоимения в косвенном падеже.
Например: She can’t do her home work.
Can you help her?
1) I can’t translate the article. Can you help …?
2) The sportsman must win the contest. Can you see …?
3) She is busy. Don’t ask … .
4) We have a press conference tomorrow. Come to see …?
5) They are really good sportsmen. You must meet … .
2. Заполните пропуски неопределенными местоимениями.
1) We need (some, any, no) food so let’s go to the shop.
2) Have you got (some, any, no) books at home?
3) She has (any, some, no) money with her.
4) (Some, any, no) student must do fitness exercises every morning.
5) I had (some, any, no) problems yesterday.
6) We had (no, any, some) spectators.
3. Используйте степени сравнения прилагательных по смыслу.
1) Our wrestlers are (strong) than yours.
2) This basketball player is (high) in the team.
3) This exercise is (important) than the previous one.
4) She doesn’t work very hard. Her brother is (hard).
4. Напишите предложения в Present Continuous
1) She does her morning exercises.
2) She has a cup of coffee every day.
3) They will come to see us on Sunday.
4) He was reading a newspaper.
5) He has finished his work already.
5. Напишите следующие существительные во множественном числе.
A pen, a sportsman, a plate, a country, a girl, a foot, a tooth.
6.Переведите следующие предложения с русского на английский язык.
1) Мне не говорили вчера, что матч состоится завтра.
2) Я думаю, что стадион буден построен к маю.
3) Бассейн был закрыт, так как было уже восемь вечера.
4) Он уедет на соревнования, когда подпишут договор.
5) Фильмы о великих спортсменах продаются во многих магазинах.
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Being very popular from earlier times- and having considerable support among Russians - were Russian folk games with various-sized balls, sticks, bones and stones, including the following popular games;
Gorodki - is a popular game which needed a 50-cm stick which is hurled at a square containing wooden pegs. The aim of the game is to knock with a stick, to various configurations of pegs out of the square:
Lapta - is a game similar to rounder or baseball:
Lunki - is a game in which a ball is rolled along the ground to a hole in some distance away:
Shariki - is a game similar to marbles:
Babki - is a game using bones; one bone is used to knock two or more configurations of bones out of a circle. There are some 40 versions of the game which are currently practiced in Russia:
Kila - is a game played on the left-hand side of a yard. Usually there are 8 or 9 men who play kila. Kila is a leather hair-filled ball, the size of a man’s head. The two sides, the participants and opponents compete with each other. So called “wall-to-wall” game; where a player kicks the ball and tries not to lose it while running to the other side of the field. The aim of the game is to force to put the ball into a “gorod” which is marked by a line. Anyone who breaks the rules has his neck “soaped”. The players shout kila “when the gorod is taken”. This game was evidently a primitive version of a modern football. It was played both in summer and in winter (on ice).
1. Составьте предложения по образцу.
Образец: Gorodki - is a game in which a stick is hurled at a square containing wooden pegs.
football to get a ball through the net
volleyball is a game in which you try to knock a ball into a hole
tennis to kick the ball and try not to lose the ball
kila to knock a ball into a goal
golf to knock a ball through some hoops
criket to hit a ball that your opponent cannot hit
2. Раскройте скобки, употребив соответствующую форму сказуемого
1) I (to see) a very interesting old game.
2) He (to live) in Spain when he was a child.
3) What you (to do) when Ben phoned?
4) How long you (to know) him?
5) Ann (not to recover) yet.
6) The player (to win) gold medal last year.
3. Вставьте предлоги, где это необходимо.
1) They went … the stadium.
2) We’ve been invited … the sport club.
3) People all over the world are fond … sport.
4) I’d like to learn much … Russian games.
5) Rugby can be called hand football … England.
6) I usually run … the morning but sometimes I (to have) no time.
4. Выразите согласие или несогласие.
A footballer needs better foot reaction time. - Yes, it is right.
The students performed different exercises and now they are ready for the competition. - No, it is wrong.
1) People practice sport because they enjoy it, and they feel need to keep fit.
2) Many sportsmen are famous all over the world.
3) A lot of Russians liked their old games.
4) A lot of young people like sport on TV.
5) It is very important to go in for sports.
6) Everyone can play football.
5. Вставьте подходящее местоимение из данных в скобках (much, many, little, few).
1) He wrote so … letters to his relatives.
2) She ate so … ice cream.
3) Have you … work to do?
4) Does your sister read …?
5) We have … books on the shelf.
6) I know very … about chess.
7) There were … mistakes during the first match of the game.
8) There is … snow in winter.
6. Напишите возможные формы инфинитива по образцам
a) Indefinite Passive (to teach – to be taught)
to receive, to win, to defeat, to write, to do.
b) Continuous Active (to teach - to be teaching)
to develop, to make, to discuss, to look, to give, to watch.
c) Perfect Passive (to teach - to have been taught)
to send, to finish, to translate, to offer, to attack, to do.
d) Perfect Continuous (to teach - to have been teaching)
to live, to work, to train, to translate, to discuss.
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Among organized sports activities, the most important approach is practiced by the sport associations, which represent the basis of any organized sport system. The number of associations, range of activities, material basis, achieved top sports performance, and many other elements are parts of common physical culture of a nation and our wealthy heritage.
There are a lot of sport organizations with many people who are participating in the regular sports. Having divided them into groups, we can segregate those who practice sports for pleasure, and those who do it for a possible top sport results. In reality, most of them are involved in qualitative sports with no results, and about 8-10% are involved in serious professional training, from early selection to the national, European and international level.
People practiced unorganized activities for many reasons. They do it themselves, in the family, with friends, they sometimes participate in organized sport events.
The early days of the twentieth century were busy days for organized sport movement. More and more clubs were formed in the country, special schools and courses of physical training were established in large cities and towns. A lot of sport leagues and national associations appeared because they had to provide competitions in specific sports.
Our town is proud of the most famous sportsmen like V. Alekseev, V. Tregubov, M. Logvinenko, L. Kodtratyeva, D.Rigert, A Silnov, and many others. Their names are world famous and we are proud of them.
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