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Летательные Аппараты

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( Aircraft)

Учебное пособие по английскому языку.


Самара 2009



Составитель: О.Б. Салманова.



« Летательные Аппараты»

Учебное пособие по английскому языку.

Самарский Государственный Аэрокосмический Университет.

Самара,2009 г.


Составлено в соответствии с требованиями программы по английскому языку а также в рамках программы «English for Specific Purposes». Содержит тексты для чтения, пересказа, реферирования и аннотирования, лексико-грамматические упражнения, тестовые задания. Использована оригинальная литература по авиации и космонавтике.

Учебное пособие разработано на кафедре иностранных языков и предназначены для студентов 1 курса факультета самолетостроения.

Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского совета Самарского государственного университета имени академика С. П. Королева.


Рецензент Ермишина С.М.

Unit 1

From the History of Flying



1. a) Brainstorm the words which come to your mind when you think of flight.



b) Choose those ones that may be related to the human flight and explain why you have chosen them.


2. Before you read the text try to answer the following questions. Shear your answers.

1) Why can airplanes fly? Is there any difference between flight of birds and airplanes?

2) What are the main forces acting on the aircraft in flight?

3) What types of the aircraft do you know?


3. Scan the text and try to guess the meaning of underlined words from the content of the text.



1. Read the text and highlight the key ideas of each paragraph.


From the History of Flying


A. The desire to fly was one of the oldest desires of man. But in old times people knew little about air and its nature.

B. The Greek philosopher Aristotle believed that air had weight and pressed on bodies which were in the air. One of the most famous Greek legends is the legend of Daedalus and Icarus who made wings and fastened them on with wax. Daedalus landed in safety. Icarus was not so careful as his father and he flew closer and closer to the sun. The closer he was the hotter it became. The wax melted, his wings came off and he fell into the sea.

C. Later men of science like Galileo, Roger Bacon and Pascal came to conclusion that air was gas and that the higher you went the less its pressure was.

D. People who like to read books on aviation development may take interest in the book "On the Flight of Birds" by Leonardo da Vinci. That human flight is possible is the fundamental idea of the book. In the book the famous Italian artist and scientist recorded the first scientific principles of human flight. He found that the faster the flow of the air the greater the lift was. As a result of these studies he designed a flying device. In his device the pilot had to operate movable wings with the help of his arms and feet. But the machine did not fly.

E. In the course of many centuries scientists tried to make a flying device. But the development of a practical flying device on a really scientific basis began later. The first flying machine man could control in the air appeared only in the 19-th century.

F. And this first in the history of civilization plane was the one designed by Alexander Mozhaisky. It went up in the summer of 1832.

J. There are many glorious chapters in the history of flying in our country. There were the famous flights by the crews of V. Chkalov and M. Gromov, who flew their planes from the Soviet Union to the United States via the North Pole and will forever be considered models of courage and skill.

H. Devoted courage was displayed by our pilots in the Great Patriotic War. More than 2000 Soviet pilots won the title of Hero of the Soviet Union, and 69 won this award twice. Alexander Pokryshkin and Ivan Kozhedub, the famous fighter aces, became triple Heroes of the Soviet Union.

I. Following the glorious traditions of the Soviet aviation our pilots are establishing new world records for altitude, range and speed. In our days air forces have undergone a qualitative reequipment. New supersonic jet planes have replaced the piston-engined aircraft. Air force equipment and armaments are being improved continually. Aviation has given birth to astronautics, it has provided the theoretical and practical bases for the conquest of outer space. The time is not far away when passengers aircraft will be doing regular service on space lines.


Comprehension Check


1. The text has 9 paragraphs. Which paragraph mentions the first controlled flying machine?


2. Which of the following sentences summarize the main idea of the paragraph D?

a) Human flight is possible due to moving wings.

b) Flight principle was known from the ancient Greeks.

c) Scientific principle of the human flight was recorded by Leonardo da Vinci.

d) Leonardo da Vinci predicted conquest of outer space.


3. In the text find the definition of the main scientific principle of human flight.

4. Look at the text again and answer the questions.

1. Who believed that air had weight?

2. Who wrote the book “On the Flight of Birds”?

3. What is the fundamental idea of the book “On the Flight of Birds”?

4. What did Leonardo da Vinci record in his book “On the Flight of Birds”?

5. When is the lift of the aircraft greater?

6. When did the first flying machine appear?

7. Who designed the first plane?


Vocabulary Focus


1. Work in pairs. Give the definitions of the following words and expressions.

Famous person, gas, lifting force, airplane, world record, range, passenger, supersonic plane.


2. a) In the text find the antonyms for the words in the box.


danger lose slower the newest impossible irregular moveless impractical  


b) Make up sentences with the words from the box.


3. Complete the sentences below with suitable words from the text.


1. Later men of science came to conclusion that the higher you went …. air pressure was.

a) the higher b) the more c) the little d) the less

2. Leonardo da Vinci discovered that ….. the flow of the air …… the lift was.

a) the faster, the less b) the faster, the greater c) the greater, the less

3. Supersonic jet planes have replaced …… .

a) helicopters b) piston-engined aircraft c) subsonic aircraft

4. Air force equipment and armaments are being ….. continually.

a) considered b) improved c) displayed d) controlled




1. What are the facts you have learnt from the text? Share ideas with your partner.

2. Work in pairs. Imagine that one of you is a visitor of a museum of aviation and the other is a museum guide. Make up a dialog. You may need some more information. Conduct an investigation to find out some interesting facts.

Use the following expressions:

Excuse me, do you know …

I could hardly imagine that ….

I didn’t expect that …

That’s a very interesting question …


1. Read the following words to form meaningful sentences.

1. speed/Russian/and/are/pilots/records/establishing/range/new/for/world/altitude.

2. air/on/has/bodies/and/presses/weight.

3. in/planes/replace/will/jet/future/spaceplanes/supersonic.

4. the/the/flow/the/of/faster/is/air/the/the/lift/greater.

5. da Vinci/the/principles/flight/of/Leonardo/human/first/recorded/scientific.




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