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ПОРЯДОК СЛОВ ВОПРОСИТЕЛЬНОГО ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЯ

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Вопросительное предложение имеет обратный порядок слов, т.е. на первом месте стоит сказуемое или его часть - вспомогательный или модальный глагол, на втором - подлежащее, на третьем - смысло­вой глагол. Рассмотрим два основных типа вопросов: общий и специ­альный.

ОБЩИЙ ВОПРОС

Общий вопрос - это вопрос ко всему предложению. На него можно дать краткий ответ: Да. Нет. Например: Ты любищь читать? -Да.(Нет.)

Общий вопрос в английском предложении начинается с соответствующего вспомогательного/модального глагола (в зависимости от времени, характера действия, лица и числа подлежащего), за ним следуют остальные члены предложения.

Краткий ответ состоит из слова Yes или Nо, подлежащего, выраженного местоимением, соответствующим подлежа­щему вопроса, и вспомогательного или модального глагола (с которого начинается общий вопрос)

Yes (Nо) + подлежащее-местоимение + вспомогательный глагол)

 

1. Do you like to read? Уеs, I do. Nо, I do not.

2. Does he like to read? Yes, he does. Nо, he does not.

3. Can she read? Yes, she can. No, she cannot.

СПЕЦИАЛЬНЫЙ ВОПРОС

Специальный вопрос — это вопрос к какому-либо члену пред­ложения. Он содержит вопросительное слово (слова), которое стоит на нулевом месте, перед вспомогательным или модальным глаголом.

Например: Где ты учишься? Where do you study?

Что ты любишь читать? What do you like to read?

Примечание: Если вопрос задается к предложному дополнению, то предлог чаще всего выносится в конец предложения.

Whom have you spoken with? - С кем вы говорили? What do you speak about? - 0 чем вы говорите?

ВОПРОС К ПОДЛЕЖАЩЕМУ И ЕГО ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЮ

Специальный вопрос к подлежащему и его определению имеет прямой порядок слов. На первом месте стоит подлежащее, выраженное вопросительным местоимением Who? — Кто? И What? -Что? (Какой?), на втором - сказуемое в третьем лице единственного числа.

Who knows the answer?

ВОПРОС К ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЮ СО СКАЗУЕМЫМ, ВЫРАЖЕННЫМ ГЛАГОЛОМ ТО ВЕ ИЛИ ТО HAVE

Глаголы to be, to havе являются исключением, они образуют вопросительную (и отрицательную) форму без вспомогательного глагола, путем простой инверсии, т.е. на первом месте стоит глагол to be или to have в соответствующей форме, на втором -подлежащее.

 

Are you a student? Where were you yesterday?

Have you many friends? Or (Do you have many friends?)

 

ПРЕДЛОЖЕНИЕ В ПОВЕЛИТЕЛЬНОМ НАКЛОНЕНИИ

Предложения в повелительном наклонении выражают приказание, просьбу, побуждение к действию или запрещение. Такие предложения начинаются с глагола в повелительном наклонении, в утвердительной или отрицательной форме.

Take this book. - Возьмите эту книгу.

Do not (don`t)take this book - He берите эту книгу!

Повелительные предложения, выражающие приказания или побуж­дения, обращенные к первому или третьему лицу, строятся с помощью let (давайте, пусть) в повелительном наклонении, существительного или местоимения 1-го или 3-го лица в объектном падеже и инфинитива глагола без частицы to.

 

I. Let me read: - Давайте, я прочту!

2. Let us read this text - Давайте читать этот текст.

3. Let Petrov read! - Пусть Петров читает.

4. Let her (him) read -Пусть она (он) читает!

5. Let the machine (it) run! -Пусть машина (она) работает.



 

 

ИМЯ СУЩЕСТВИТЕЛЬНОЕ (The Noun)

Имя существительное - часть речи, которая называет предмет, лицо, явление, процесс и т,д. Имя существительное в английском языке имеет категории числа (единственное и множественное) и падежа (общий и притяжательный).Категория рода отсутствует. 3.Показатели существительного:

1. Артикль: a (an);- неопределенный, the - определенный.

2. Предлоги: in, at, on, upon, without… at school; in the box

3. Прилагательные: red ball; beautiful girl.

4. Существительное в притяжательном падеже: boy's name – имя мальчика Peter's book - Петина книга.

5. Местоимения:

а) указательные: this - these; that - those; this book;

б) притяжательные: my, his, theirs... her book; - ее книга;

в) неопределенные и отрицательные: some, any, no, each, every ... no book - никакая книга; every book – каждая книга; some book: - какая-то книга.

 

ГЛАГОЛ (The Verb)

Глагол - часть речи, которая обозначает действие или состояние лица или предмета. Глагол имеет следующие грамматические категории: лицо, число, время, вид, залог, наклонение.

По своему значению и функции в предложении глаголы делятся на:

1)самостоятельные (смысловые): to study, to read;

2)модальные (выражающие отношение к действию): must, саn и т.д;

3)вспомогательные, служащие для образования видо-временных форм глагола (не переводятся, т.к., в этой функции теряют свое лек­сическое значение): be, have, do, shall, will, should, would;

4)глаголы-связки для образования составного именного сказуемого: bе, become, turn, look, grow, get:

It grows dark.— Становится темно.

5) глаголы-заменители и усилители:

а) все модальные и вспомогательные глаголы употребляются как глаголы-заменители в кратких ответах, заменяя смысловой глагол;

6) в функции глагола-усилителя употребляется только глагол to do, в этом случае он стоит в утвердительном предложении в личной
форме перед смысловым глаголом. При переводе на русский язык в таких предложениях употребляются слова: действительно, все-таки, же:

Do read this text. - Читай же этот текст.

They did get this information - Они вcё таки получили эту информацию.

В зависимости от направленности действия глаголы делятся на:

а) переходные (действие переходит на какой-либо предмет), могут иметь прямое дополнение:

to write a litter – писать письмо

б) непереходные: to go - идти, to sleep - спать

Вся видо-временная система английского глагола образуется на основе четырех форм глагола: инфинитив - infinitive, прошедшее неопределенное время - Past Indefinite, причастие II - Participle II, причастие I - Participle I.

По способу образования прошедшего неопределенного времени (Past Indefinite) и Причастия II (Participle II) все глаголы делятся на: правильные - те, которые образуют Past Indefinite и Participle II путём прибавления к основе глаголa окончания -ed, и неправильные - те, которые имеют каждый свою особую форму для Past Indefinite и Participle II.

Причастие I (Participle I) всех глаголов образуется путем прибавления к основе глагола окончания -ing.

ЛИЧНЫЕ И НЕЛИЧНЫЕ ФОРМЫ ГЛАГОЛА

Все формы глагола делятся на личные и неличные, в зависимости от функций, которые они выполняют в предложении.

 

ГЛАГОЛ
Личные формы Неличные формы
Выполняют функцию сказуемого в предложении.   Выражают лицо, число, время, залог, наклонение.   Выполняют функции подлежащего, дополнения, определения, обстоятельства, а функцию сказуемого самостоятельно выполнять не могут (только в сочетании с личной формой вспомогательного глагола образуют сложные глагольные формы). К неличным формам относятся: Инфинитив (to V to read - читать); Причастие I (Ving reading - читая, читающий); Причастие II (V3 or Ved read - прочитанный, читаемый; opened -открытый); Герундий (Ving reading - чтение, читать)

 

ЛИЧНЫЕ ФОРМЫ ГЛАГОЛА

 

THE SIMPLE (INDEFINITE) TENSE

Глагольные формы Simple Tense выражают действие в настоящем, прошедшем или будущем времени безотносительно к какому-либо другому действию или моменту времени.

На русский язык переводятся в зависимости от контекста глаголами совершенного или несовершенного вида.

(V – глагол)

 

Present Simple: -V or Vs (3-е лицо ед.ч.)

I write letters. Do you write letters? Yes, I do.

He writes letters. Does he write letters? No, he doesn’t.

 

Past Simple: V-ed or VII (неправ. гл..)

He opened the door. Did he open the door? Yes, he did.

I wrote letters. Did you write letters? Yes, I did.

 

Future Simple: Will V (для всех лиц и чисел)

shall V (I л. ед. и мн.ч.)

 

I will (I’ll , I shall) write letters. Will you write letters? Yes, I will.

 

СПРЯЖЕНИЕ ГЛАГОЛА ТО ВЕ В SIMPLE TENSE

 

  Present Simple Past Simple Future Simple
ч л ед.ч. мн.ч. ед.ч. мн.ч. ед.ч. мн.ч.
I am You Are He is She is It is   We are You are They are I was You were He was She was It was We were You were They were I shall be You will be he will be she will be it will be We shall be You will be They will be

 

СПРЯЖЕНИЕ ГЛАГОЛА TO HAVE В SIMPLE TENSE

 

Present Simple – have, 3-е лицо ед.ч. – has

Past Simple – had

Future Simple – will have (shall have для 1 лица ед. и мн. числа)

 

Exercises:

 

1. Укажите, к какой части речи относятся выделенные слова, переведите предложения,

1. The house has no lift. 2. I must lift this box. 3. I can't lift it without your help 4. Help me to lift the box. 5. You must rest after your work. 6. I like to rest at home. 7. We rest with a book. 8. They have no work, they can rest. 9. You must have a good sleep. 10. He wants to sleep. 11. This letter has no end, you must end it. 12. Try to place all the books on the shelf. 13. A dinner table is not the place for books.

 

2. Определите, к какой части речи относятся выделенные слова по их функции в предложении. Переведите предложения.

1. Fire produces smоке. 2. Smoke fills the room. 3. Man needs electricity for industrial uses. 4. He uses electricity for his needs. 5. This flat houses a worker's family. 6. We have no dark rooms in our new houses. 7. The garage houses twenty cars. 8. Water supplies power for industry. 9. The library has large supplies of books. 10. Man must heat his house. 11. Some plants suffer from heat. 12. A worker times the speed of this machine. 13. You must repeat the experiment many times. 14. Old people remember hard old times. 15. A farmer plants potatoes in spring. 16. Millions of people work at plants, mills and factories. 17. Students have a break between the lectures. 18. The break is not long. 19. Stones break the ice.

 

3. Напишите следующие предложения во множественном числе.

1. My sister likes to swim. 2. The bus stops at the insti­tute. 3. The student studies and the worker works. 4. He always gets good marks. 5. She puts her books on the table. 6. Skilled engineer constructs sputniks and spaceships. 7. I go to the institute every day. 8. I see many students in this room. 9. I borrow books from the library. 10. This girl goes in for sport. 11. He likes to read detective stories. 12. My friend speaks English.13. Housewife keeps food in the refrigerator.

 

4. Напишите следующие предложения в единственном числе.

1. My friends work in London. 2. These girls go to the theatre in the evening. 3. These apples are very green. 4. My friends do not like fish. 5. His brothers work much all day long. 6. They get new books from the library every week. 7. They have breakfast at eight o'clock. 8. The postmen bring letters three times a day. 9. They want to buy some toys, because their sons have a birthday tomorrow. 10. My sisters work at the factory.

 

5. Заполните пропуски выделенными глаголами, согласуйте их с под­лежащим в лице и числе.

1. Steel and aluminum belong to metals, coal ... to minerals. 2. The sun shines by day and the stars ... at night. 3. Our country lies in Europe and Asia, Cuba and Canada ... in America. 4. A tunnel runs under the ground and bridges ... across the rivers. 5. Mills and factories produce industrial products, a farm ... food.

 

6. Переведите, соблюдая порядок слов английского предложения.

1. Я каждый день вижу этого человека. 2. На заводе работа­ют рабочие, в институте работают профессора и преподаватели. 3. Студенты учатся в институте. 4. В институте они изучают иностранные языки. 5. Вечером я читаю или смотрю телевизор.

 

7. Определите, какой частью речи являются выделенные слова по их функции в предложении и переведите предложения.

1. This is a very detailed plan. 2. We plan to finish our work next week. 3. We state that this method of work is of great importance for that branch of science. 4. Please number the drawings. 5. Put a number under that drawing. 6. Professor N. lectures on that subject at our Institute. 7. I like his lectures very much. 8. Every machine requires some sort of power to operate. 9. There are many new power plants in different parts of our country. 10. According to conservative estimates (скромные подсчеты) the coal reserves in the Far North amount to 240,000 million tons. 11. This means is not efficient in that case. 12. This means that you must use other devices in that case. 13. Such decision will result in (приводить к) the complete change of all methods used.

 

8. Поставьте следующие предложения в прошедшее и будущее время (Past, Future Simple), добавив соответствующие обстоя­тельства времени (at 5 o'clock, yesterday, tomorrow, next week, last month, next year и т.д.), если это необходимо.

1. Victor is free in the evening. 2. John is in America. 3. I am very busy. 4. She is at the lecture. 5. The child is 10 years old. 6. This work is interesting. 7. The expedition is in Africa. 8. The new film is long. 9. My mother is at home. 10. The workers are at the factory. 11. The children are at school. 12. The students are at the institute.

 

9. Поставьте следующие предложения в прошедшее время (Past Simple) и в будущее время (Future Simple).

 

1. Не has a car. 2. They have a big house in the country. 3. My friend has many interesting books. 4. His mother has a nice garden. 5. She has a good map of London. 6. We have a good dog. 7. I have a beautiful picture. 8. These students have five exa­minations. 9. His parents have a comfortable flat. 10. John has good work. 11. These pupils have four lessons every day.

 

10. Переведите на английский язык.

 

1. В 6 часов я буду дома, я буду работать дома. 2. Завтра профессор Новиков будет на конференции, он будет делать доклад. 3. Мой брат будет преподавать в школе: он будет преподавателем 4. Мы были на собрании. Мы говорили о методах нашей работы. 5. Я в библиотеке. 6. Студенты в лаборатории. У них контрольная работа.

 

11. Ответьте на все вопросы сначала утвердительно, затем отрица­тельно. Замените подлежащее соответствующим местоимением,

если это необходимо.

 

Образец: Is Kovalev present at the lesson? - Yes, he is.

No, he is not.

1. Is your street long? 2. Was last winter cold? 3. Are your friend's sisters beautiful? 4. Is it hot today? 5. Is it Sunday today? 6. Is the clock on the wall? 7. Are you at the lesson? 8. Will you bе at home in the evening? 9. Are the trees green now? 10. Is your house in the centre of the city? 11. Will your mother be at home at five o'clock? 12. Were you free yesterday? 13. Is his answer good? 14. Will you be in town on Sunday? 15. Is mathematics difficult? 16. Were your summer plans interesting? 17. Is your institute large?

 

12. Переведите на английский язык, пользуясь глаголом "to be" во всех случаях, где это необходимо.

 

1.Писатель - это человек, который пишет книги. 2. Его цель - писать о жизни и с людях. 3. Марк Твен и Драйзер - американские писатели. 4. Многие американские писатели являются друзьями Со­ветского Союза. 5. Интересно читать романы Драйзера. Необходимо читать их по-английски. 6. Писатель был в нашей стране в 1927-28 годах. 7. Его книги есть в каждой библиотеке.

 

13. Определите, с каким словом или словами согласовано сказуемое. Переведите предложения.

 

1. The structure of metals explains their properties. 2. Wa­ter in all seas, rivers and lakes has the same composition. 3. Particles of water have the same composition. 4. Rice and cotton require a hot climate. 5. The cultivation of rice and cotton requires a hot climate. 6. The demand for automatic tools increases. 7. Automatic tools increase the output. 8. The chemica1 laboratory produces different substances. 9. Automatic ma­chines in this shop produce machine parts.

 

14. Поставьте следующие предложения в отрицательную форму и переведите их.

Образец: They came to see me yesterday. - They did not come to see me yesterday.

 

1. This teacher asks many questions at the examination. 2. My friend often receives money from his parents. 3. My father helps me with ray home task. 4. We read newspapers in the evening. 5. I received a letter yesterday. 6. We liked the new film. 7. They left Moscow last summer. 8. These students attended lectures yesterday. 9. My mother will go to Leningrad in July.

10. We shall go to the cinema tomorrow. 11. I shall buy this dictionary. 12. They will return the books to the library on Saturday.

 

15. Дайте краткий и полный ответы в утвердительной и отрицатель­ной форме. Переведите вопросы.

Образец: Is America a big continent? - "Yes, it is. America is

a big continent.

1. Does the Atlantic Ocean wash our coasts? 2 Is the American continent far from our country in the North? 3 Can we get to America from Siberia? 4. Does our country reach the Arctic is Chukotka? 5. Does Alaska lie in the same geographical zone? 6. Are the two countries on the same continent? 7. Does the country progress?

 

16. Поставьте общий вопрос к каждому предложению и дайте краткий ответ в утвердительной и отрицательной форме.

 

1. Peter is a good sportsman. He likes all kinds of sport. 2. He was the best football player at school. He took part in all matches. 3. Peter and George are friends. They live in the same house. 4. They are the same age. They entered school in the same year. 5. George is a good specialist on electrification. He works at a power station. 6. Peter will be an engineer in four years. He studies at an institute. 7. All the students were at the lec­ture yesterday. They went there together. 8. The lecture was interesting. They liked it. 9. Professor N. is a good lecturer. He lectures at our Institute. 10. I don't make many mistakes in mathematics.

 

17. Переведите на английский язык и сравните конструкции русского и английского вопросительных предложений.

 

1. Ваш преподаватель говорит по-английски на уроке? 2. Пони­мают ли студенты преподавателя? 3. Все ли студенты понимают его? 4. Могут ли студенты отвечать по-английски? 5. Умеете ли вы задавать вопросы? 6. Вы делаете много ошибок? 7. Поправляет ли пре­подаватель ваши ошибки? 8. Читаете вы английские рассказы? 9. Пользуетесь ли вы словарем? 10. Студенты задают вопросы?

 

18. Ответьте на вопросы.

 

1. At what institute do you study? 2. Are you pleased with your studies at the Institute? 3. Must you attend all the seminars? 4. Do you have many lectures? 5. Do you take notes at every lecture? 6. What specialty will you get? 7. How many examinations will you take at the end of the year? 8. How long do you stay at the Institute? 9. When are you free in the evening? 10. What do you do when you come home? 11. What language do you study? 12. Do you take part in scientific research? 13. Have you any students' societies?

 

19. Задайте специальные вопросы к выделенным членам предложения.

 

1. We begin our lessons at 9. 2. I learn many subjects at the Institute. 3. These students understand English well. 4. My mother doesn't teach French. 5. My friend passed his examinations well. 6. These pupils studied English at school. 7. My sister graduated from the institute 2 years ago. 8. I did not come to the Institute yesterday. 9. They did not go to the theatre last week. 10. My sister did not like this film. 11. We shall take examinations in winter. 12. I shall leave Moscow in summer. 13. They will play football on Sunday. 14. I shall not get up at 7 on Sunday. 15. My parents will not leave the village. 16. His sister will buy this dress.

 

20. Поставьте вопросы к следующим предложениям, используя денные в скобках вопросительные слова.

 

1. Great Britain must import half of its food supply from abroad. (How much...?) 2. British architects must build houses with large windows to let through more light during foggy winter days. (Why ...?) 3. The Gulf-stream influences the climate of the British Isles. (What ...?) 4. The oldest University towns of Great Britain are Oxford and Cambridge. (What towns ...?) 5. In the past Great Britain was the leading shipbuilding country. (What country ...?) 6. The island of Great Britain consists of three parts: England, Wales and Scotland. (Of how many ..?)

 

21. Поставьте к каждому предложению вопрос по образцу. Переведите вопросы на русский язык.

Образец: A mother speaks of her children. - What does a mother

speak of?

1. A teacher thinks of his pupils. 2. A sportsman reads of matches and Olympic Games. 3. A chemist writes of his experiments. 4. The radio informs of the weather. 5. Old school friends talk of their schooldays. 6. A pilot reports of his flight. 7. These students don't take books from the library. 8. He returns from Moscow. 9. She listens to her friend. 10. We make books of paper.

 

22. Найдите существительные. Укажите их определители. Переведите предложения.

1. The texts of these lessons are difficult. 2. Our professor’s assistant is a young man. 3. My sister’s friends knew English well. 4. The diagrams of this book are interesting. 5. My brother’s dictionary is lying on the shelf. 6. The piston of the engine is in its place. 7. There are new data about the moon’s surface. 8. He lives in ten minutes’ walk from our house. 9. This plane’s engines are powerful. 10. We shall see the engineers’ drawings.

 

23. Определите, какой частью речи являются выделенные слова. Переведите предложения.

1. Before the lectures the students work in the consultation room. Our professor lectures in that room. 2. The planet orbits its sum. The orbits meet at this point. 3. There were a lot of good marks. Such qualities usually mark a great scientist. 4. We have all the plans of new factories in this industrial zone. Factories usually plan their work for a month of for a year. 5. The interests of our specialists centre on the problems of food technology. These devices interest the specialists of radio laboratory. 6. The radio leaves no place in the country without information. These devices radio the information from the far-off stations. 7. The device pumps the oil from the well. This pump doesn’t work well. 8. The plants which work in cooperation with us machine various parts for the cars of the new make. This plant makes a lot of various machines. 9. When you round the corner, you’ll see a red house. The boxer was knocked in the first round.

 

24. Замените согласно образцу:

Образец: Winter in the Arctic = The Arctic winter

1) the transport of Moscow; 2) the speed of operation; 3) the construction of this machine; 4) the apartment which has two rooms; 5) the world’s largest deposits of iron ore; 6) calculating machines of the 20h century; 7)the level of the Moskva river; 8) the temperature of the body; 9) recent developments in electronics; 10) investigations in science and technology; 11)the oil demand which is continuously increasing; 12) a lesson on chemistry; 13) a flight in space; 14) a newspaper on the wall; 15) the number of the telephone.

 

25. Переведите следующие словосочетания на русский язык:

The traffic speed; the traffic speed increase; the railway bridge; the railway bridge reconstruction; the London underground; the London underground problem; the thermoelectric generator development; the energy accumulation process; the modern house ventilation facilities; the car speed calculation; the arch bridge construction site; the high quality concrete; the research program result; the Moscow region newspaper; the temperature limit determination; the household goods; the household goods store; the steam engine invention; the soil stabilization result; the transport animal; the wheel invention; the deep sea current measuring device; a rocket-propelled five ton sputnik spaceship.

 

26. Переставьте слова и переведите словосочетания до и после

перестановки:

1) flower garden; 2) glass bottle; 3) home rest; 4) speed control; 5) distribution line; 6) wire metal; 7) salt crystal; 8) salt lake; 9) oil export; 10) home work; 11) Friendship University.

 

27. Переведите все определения соответствующими существительными:

Летний день; автобусная остановка; каменный век; зимний спорт; лесная дорога; книжная полка; школьный коридор; комнатная температура; городской парк, нефтяная промышленность, телефонный справочник.

28. Переведите следующие сочетания на русский язык, обращая внимание на существительные в роли определения.

a bus stop; ice field; steam pressure; a picture gallery; wind velocity; a river port; our Institute building; mass production; production achievements; study films; tape recorders; television programs; methods; liberation movement; a ten per cent wage increase; the twentieth century music; the North Pole expedition; an art critic; foreign language studies; steam turbine; peace policy; a three room apartment; office tele­phone number; the Moon Exploration Committee; apace research laboratories; a two centimetre thick rope; oil Industry workers; gas molecules; iron ore deposits; cosmic ray studios; water power; steam powers electric power generation! air pressure; a new transformer; transformer steel; long distance lines; alternating current transformers; wide scale electrification; electricity consumption; power supply; radio Engineering; Speed Control System Studies; a combined analogue computer; accuracy tests; conductor calculations; current and voltage measurements; velocity automatic governor; atomic power generation; direct current measurements; speed change: the plasma electron Ьeаm; the cur rent density; mass distribution curve; high voltage transmission line design.

ТЕКСТ I

Прочтите и переведите текст. Определите, какой частью речи являются выделенные слова, объясните почему.

 

A man has intellect. He can think and speak. He can work and plan his work. We cannot live without food; we must not work without rest. We rest after work.

A man works and studies according to a plan. It helps him in his work and study. Man studies nature and uses it for his needs. Nature gives us food, metals and minerals. Coal is a mineral, it gives heat. Heat can generate electricity, electricity produces energy. Steel is not a mineral; it belongs to metals; it supplies materials for industry. We use steel for engines, instruments and in construction. Man needs electricity for many industrial uses. With its help we can drive engines and machines, build houses and cities, tunnels and bridges, construct sputniks spaceships and rockets. The rocket drives the spaceship and sends it into cosmos. Man's intellect and technical skill pro­gress. We must not stop on the way to progress. Men and women, you and I will he1p to make life happy on this planet.

 

Т Е К С Т 2

Найдите сказуемые, выраженные глаголами "to be" и "to have". Определите их форму, переведите текст. Задайте к каждому предло­жению общий вопрос.

Theodore Dreiser (1871-1945).

Theodore Dreiser is a great progressive American writer of our age, a great master of realistic art. His wish to study was very strong. He often learned at night after a long day of work. It was hard for the boy who was only sixteen.

When Theodore Dreiser was twenty-one, he started his literary work as a newspaper reporter. The reporters were always in contact with facts of social life. Later on this fact will be of great importance for him, as this work will help him to become a great writer of the American literature.

The name of Theodore Dreiser is very popular with Russian readers. Dreiser's novels were, are, and will be of great inte­rest to the readers all over the world.

 

ТЕКСТ 3

Найдите подлежащие и сказуемые, определите форму сказуемого. Переведите текст.

IN TWO CONTINENTS

America is a big continent. It has a large territory. The American continent stretches from the Polar Zone to the south, crosses the equator and reaches the fifty-sixth parallel. Two huge oceans divide America from other continents of the world. The Atlantic Ocean washes its coasts in the East; the Pacific Ocean washes its coast in the West. Only in one place America comes close to our country. In the Polar Zone a narrow strait, only eighty-five kilometers wide, lies between Alaska in America and Chukotka in our country. It is the Bearing Strait. Its right and left banks lie in different countries.

Winter in the Polar Zone is very long, cold and dark. It begins atthe end of August and ends in June. The water of the Behring Strait freezes: thick masses of ice cover it for nine months. The way across the strait over the ice is not long, natives can cross it easily but they do not do it: man may not step over the border between two different countries. Alaska, a former part of Russia, is rich in gold and minerals. From the year eighteen sixty-seven it belongs to the United States. The distance between the American Alaska and our Chukotka is not great: the same ocean washes the coasts of the two countries, the same tundra stretches along the coast line. They do not differ in climate and topography.

 

 

THE CONTINUOUS/PROGRESSIVE TENSE

(Продолженное действие)

1. Глагольные формы Continuous Tense выражают действие, которое соверша­ется в какой-то определенный момент времени в настоящем, будущем или прошедшем, т.е. действие незавершенное, незаконченное.

2. Continuous Tense обрадуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола to be, который изменяется по временам, лицам и числам, т.е. стоит в личной форме и Причастия I (Participle I) смыслового глагола:

 
 
to be (личн.ф.) + Participle I (V-ing)

 

 


We are writing (now). – Мы сейчас пишем.

3. В предложении формы Continuous Tense являются сказуемым,

на русский язык переводятся глаголом несовершенного вида (что делал):

The sun was shining when I went out into the street.

Солнце светило, когда я вышел на улицу.

I’ll be studying English from 7 to 8 p.m.

Я буду заниматься английским с 7 до 8 вечера.

При постановке вопроса личная форма глагола to be ставится перед подлежащим.

Are you writing? What are you writing?

 

Exercises

I. Прочитайте и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на время сказуемого.

1. I am sitting at the table and reading an English text. I am looking into the book. 2. The teacher is listening to me. She is not sitting, she is standing. She is looking at us. 3. Yesterday when I came home my brother was reading a book. My parents were having supper, and at the same time they were watch­ing TV. My sister was doing her home-work. 4. What exam are you reading for now? - I'm reading for my exam in math. 5. We’ll be weighing the new substance at 9 o'clock in the morning. 6. The laboratory assistant was writing down all the data during our experiment. 7. The water in the tube is boiling. 8. They were installing the equipment from 5 to 7 o'clock. 9. He will be maintaining constant temperature in the tube for two hours. 10. Why are you crying? 11. When we came home he was still watching TV.

 

2. Замените времена группы Simple временами группы Conti­nuous, дополнив предложения обстоятельствами времени now, at five o'clock, from... to, when you came, где необходимо.

1. The car went along the street at high speed. 2. We had dinner at home.

3. She prepares her lessons in the library. 4. They will listen to the records tomorrow. 5. My father smokes pipe. 6. Tomorrow we shall have a practical hour on mathema­tics. 7. The student worked in the chemical laboratory the day before yesterday. 8. They will show a very interesting football match. 9. They read your book.

3. Напишите данные предложения в утвердительной форме.

1. Are you making an experiment? 2. Is the teacher standing at your table? 3. Are the students looking at your work? 4. Were you speaking with them when the teacher came up to you? 5. Will you be working here tomorrow at this time? 6. I am not reading now. 7. My friends were not working here at 9 o'clock. 8. It is not raining. 9. We won’t be reading the new text during the next lesson.

 

 

ТЕКСТ I

Прочитайте текст. Найдите подлежащее и сказуемое в каждом предложении. Определите время и залог глагола. Переведите текст.

Our planet Earth

How is our little planet living today? What problems is it facing and what problems are the Earthmen facing? As a result of the technological progress and great needs of the people in mi­nerals and water, the face of the Earth is changing day by day and not to the good.

The ecological problems we are facing are really great and difficult to solve. There is an English song which sounds like this:

"What are they doing to our land, my friend?

What are they doing to the deep seas and oceans?

What are they doing to the fresh water lakes and rivers, my friend? ... etc."

The answer to these questions may really be very sad. Our generation must not be so egoistic. We must think of our children, grandchildren and grand grandchildren as well. We really haven't got much fresh water on the Earth, as well as minerals. We must protect nature from people's egoism.

What problems are the peoples of the five continents discuss­ing now? The principal problem is the classical one - War and Peace problem. The discussions on this problem are taking place on all levels here and everywhere on our planet. State political leaders and scientists as well as common people of the five con­tinents are thinking day and sight about one and the same -"peace or war?" They are thinking over this problem inside their states and out, north and south, east and west from every point of view. This problem is exactly what we think about it – next world war may well be the end of our planet.

 

 

Test yourself

Выберите правильную видо-временную форму сказуемого:

 

1. I ____________ in a hotel until I find a flat.

1). am staying 2). stay 3). stayed 4). have stayed

2 ___________ anything special this weekend?

1). Do you do 2). Will you do 3). Are you doing 4). Did you

3. We can go out . It _________ any more now.

1). doesn’t rain 2). isn’t raining 3). wasn’t rain 4). hasn’t rained

4. I want to lose weight, so this week I ____________ lunch.

1). don’t eat 2). am going to eat 3). hasn’t eaten 4). am not eating

5. Where’s Ann? She ___________ a shower at the moment.

1). has 2). is having 3). had had 4). are having

6. This room _________ . Let’s open the window.

1). is smelling 2). doesn’t smell 3). smells 4). smell

7. He told me his name but I _____________ it.

1). am not remembering 2). doesn’t remember 3). remember 4). don’t remember

8. Are you hungry? __________ something to eat?

1). Are you wanting 2). Do you want 3). You want 4). Want you

9. George _________ smoking people.

1). had hated 2). is hating 3). hate 4). hates

10. I’d like to buy this sort of coffee. It __________ delicious.

1). is tasting 2). tastes 3). was tasting 4). taste

11. Yesterday while my sister ____________ , she burnt herself slightly.

1). was cooking 2). cooked 3). had cooked 4). were cooking

12. She ___________ by the window when she heard some noise.

1). sat 2). was sitting 3). sit 4). is sitting

13. At six o’clock I ___________ for Jack at the station.

1). was waiting 2). waited 3). wait 4). was waited

14. The match ________ at half past nine, so he will be home at be 10 p.m.

1). will finish 2). finishes 3). is finishing 4). Finish

15. There is someone at the door. I __________ it.

1). will open 2). going to open 3). open 4). was opening

 

 

Simple or Continuous?

 

Are the underlined verbs right or wrong? Correct the ones that are wrong.

 

1. I’m seeing the manager tomorrow morning.

2. I’m feeling hungry. Is there anything to eat? ………………………………

3. Are you believing in God? ………………………………

4. This sauce is great. It’s tasting really good. ………………………………

5. I’m thinking this is your key. Am I right? ……………………………....

 

 

Put the verb into the correct form, present continuous or present simple.

 

1. Are you hungry? ……… something to eat? (you/want)

2. Jill is interested in politics but she……………………….. to a political party. (not/belong)

3. Don’t put the dictionary away. I ………………………… it. (use)

4. Don’t put the dictionary away. I ………………………… it. (need)

5. Who is that man? What…………………………? (he/want)

6. Who is that man? Why …………………………at us? (he/look)

7. George says he’s 80 year old but nobody ………………………… him. (belive)

8. She told me her name but I ………………………… it now. (not/remember)

9. I ………………………… of selling my car. (think) Would you be interested in buying it?

10. I ………………………… you should sell your car. (think) You ………………………… it very often. (not/use)

11. I used to drink a lot of coffee but these days I ………………………… tea. ( prefer)

12. Air ………………………… mainly of nitrogen and oxygen. (consist)

 

 

ОБОРОТ "There + be"

Для того, чтобы выделить какое-либо слово в английском языке, употребляется оборот there+be (в личной форме), состоящий из формального подлежащего there, которое не переводится, и глагола to be в значении «быть», «находиться», «существовать». То слово, которое нужно выделить, стоит сразу же за оборотом, и с ним глагол to be согласуется в лице и числе. При переводе предложений с оборотом there+be нужно помнить, что смысловая нагрузка русского предложения возрастает к концу, и то новое, ради чего делается высказывание, нужно выделить, поставив в конец предложения.

Сравните два предложения: В комнату вошла девочка. Девочка вошла в комнату. Произнесите их и скажите, являются ли они ответом на один вопрос.

Значит, при переводе слово, стоящее сразу же за оборотом there+be, нужно поставить в конец русского предложения. Перевод такого предложения начинается со сказуемого, если есть обстоятельство, то с обстоятельства, затем – сказуемое, и в конце – слово, стоящее за оборотом.

There is a book on the table. – На столе лежит книга.

There are different sources of energy. – Существуют различные источники энергии.

There will be a lecture tomorrow. – Завтра будет лекция.

There must be a lecture today. – Сегодня должна быть лекция.

Иногда в этом обороте вместо глагола to be могут употребляться глаголы to exist - существовать, to live, to lie, to hang и т.п.

There exist many sources of energy. – Существует много источников энергии.

Exercises

I. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на оборот "there + be".

1. There is a new faculty at our Institute. 2. There are 26 letters in the English alphabet. 3. There are very powerful cranes in this port. 4. There is no telephone in my room. 5. There аre no mistakes In your written paper. 6. There is a library in every a null town. 7. There will be some factories in this region in two years.

8. There were some masters of sport among the students of our Institute. 9. There was a test in our group yesterday. 10. There will be no meeting at our department tomorrow. 11. There must be a lecture on chemistry today. 12. There was no chance of getting tickets for this Concert. 13. There can be some cracks in the structure. 14. There will be a great number of goods.

2.Найдите подлежащее в каждом предложении и укажите, в чем разница в конструкции парных предложений:

1. Тhere was an examination on the 12th of June. The examination was very difficult. 2. Many flags will decorate the houses on the lst of May. There will bе many flags decorating the houses. 3. There is a telegram for you. The telegram is on the table. 4. The snow was all around. There was snow all around.

 

3. Выберите правильную форму глагола. Переведите предложения.

1. There (is, are) a large institute in our city. 2. There (are, is) ten thousand students in the Institute. 3. There (are, is) two departments in it. 4. There (are, is) a lot of classrооms and laboratoriеs in our Institute. 5. There (are, is) a large hall on the first floor. 6. There (are, is) some laboratories in our Institute. 7. On the second floor there (are, is) a large reading room. 8. There (are, is) many magazines and newspapers in it. 9. There (are, is) a library on the groundfloor.

 

4. Поставьте следующие предложения в прошедшее и будущее время
(Past and Future Simple). Переведите их.

1. There are many good books in the library. 2. There is a new film on in our club. 3. There are twelve students in the group. 4. There is a beautiful garden near the house. 5. There is big blackboard in the classroom. 6. There is a letter for him on the table. 7. There are two lifts in the house. 8. There are 300 pages in the book. 9. There is a new theatre in the town. 10. There is a table in the middle of the room.

 

5. Составьте предложение с оборотом “there +be” в соответствующем времени, используя данные ниже слова. Согласуйте форму глагола с подлежащим.

1. …a letter in the envelope. 2. … a lift in all the new houses. 3. …a thick forest at the place of the new power station. 4. …a meeting after the lessons. 5. …many people at the last conference. 6. …a catalogue in every library. 7. … a metro station near my house next year. 8. … no mistakes in your work. 9. …no mistakes in your last work. 10. …no trees opposite my house 2 years ago. 11. … no examination next April. 12. … no stamps on the envelope. 13. …no bus stops in this street.

 

6. Переведите, обращая внимание на порядок слов в русском прeдложении.

 

1. There is a launching sight on every cosmodrome. 2. There was a large forest in the locality of the new power station. 3. There are several hundreds of Soviet sputniks in the orbit at the present time. 4. There were no computing machines untill1940. 5. There were not many qualified specialists in power engineering at the time of the construction of the first power station. 6. There will be a time when people will travel from a planet to another. 7. There is no progress without hard work. 8. There will be many new atomic stations in many places of our country. 9. There was a rich flora on the Antarctic continent several thousands of years ago. 10. There is no light in space. 11. There lies a narrow strait between Asia and America in the Polar zone. 12. Meteorologists say there will be no difference in temperature for some days.

 

7. Ответьте на следующие вопросы.

a) 1. Is there a map on the wall of your classroom? 2. Are there any pictures in this room? 3. Were there many students at the last lectures? 4. Will there be a new theatre in your town? 5. Was there a forest at the place of your district some years ago? 6. Is there a river in your town? 7. Are there any bridges across this river? 8. Were there many sunny days last winter? 9. Will there be multi-storied buildings in this district? 10. How many students are there in your group? 11. What is there in the corner of the room? 12. What house will there be in the new district? 13. How many windows are there in this room? 14. How many books were there on the table? 15. What was there in this room last year? 16. Who was there in this laboratory?

 

8. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на различные способы перевода оборота ”there be”. Поставьте к каждому предложению общий вопрос и дайте краткий утвердительный и отрицательный ответы на него.

1. There are many students at the lectures today. 2. There is a large hall in our college. 3. There are five blocks for students there. 4. The buildings are not old. 5. There are all modern conveniences. 6. There is a blackboard in front of the students’ desk. 7. There are some drawings on the blackboard. 8. There are some figures there too. 9. There are now hundreds of different plastics. 10. There are different types of rockets motors. 11. There are some kinds of surfaces. 12. There are some bookshelves here. 13. There is a book on the table.

 

9. Поставьте специальные вопросы к следующим предложениям

1. There are only tables in the room. 2. There is one window in the room. 3. There are thirteen chairs in the room. 4. There is a diagram on the wall. 5. There was one pen on the table. 6. There were five pencils on the table. 7. There were only students in the library. 8. There will be fourteen students in our group. 9. There were two interesting lectures at the club last night. 10. There will one new student in their group. 11. There were two hundred people at the meeting. 12. There was only one lecture yesterday. 13. There are thirty-five laboratories at our institute.

 

10. Заполните пропуски оборотом “ there + be” в нужном времени.

1. …an interesting lecture on political economy yesterday. 2. … many people in the park yesterday. 3. …a meeting at our Institute tomorrow. 4. … an old friend of mine. 5. … much work to do tomorrow. 6. … three types of educational institutions. 7. … no mistakes in your last exercise. 8. … many visitors in the museum yesterday. 9. … 15 students in the group now. 10. … a new club in the village next year. 11. …a beautiful park near my home. 12. …no one at home when I came.

 

11. Переведите на русский язык.

1. There can be no doubt that you will succeed in your scientific research. 2. There must be something out of order in this equipment. 3. There may be some new magazine on this subject in our library. 4. There will be a lecture on that subject at our Institute. 5. There must be a time-table here. 6. There are different articles in these magazines. 7. There exist different points of view on that subject. 8. There is no unemployment. Moreover there is always a steady demand for labour. 9. There has been a radical change in methods of work.

 

12. Переведите, употребляя, где необходимо, оборот “ there + be”

1. В газете есть фотографии. Все фотографии на второй странице. Под фотографией есть фамилии рабочих. 2. На собрании было много студентов. Собрание было интересным. 3. Около школы будет хороший сад. Сад будет большой. 4. Над столом нет лампы. Лампа на столе. 5. На конверте не было марки. Письмо не было получено. 6. Есть страны, где нет зимы. 7.В космосе нет атмосферы. Земля окружена атмосферой. 8. В библиотеке есть английские книги для студентов первого курса, но нет книги для студентов второго курса. Эти книги есть в читальном зале.

 

13. Переведите, не пользуясь словарем.

The sun is a very big star. There are millions of stars and planets in space. Both the Moon and the Earth are planets but there is a great difference between them.

There is a thick mass of air around our planet, but there is no atmosphere around the Moon. While great oceans, seas and rivers cover five seventh of the Earth surface, there is no water on the Moon.

Air and water are necessary for life. There is no life where there is no water and air. The Moon is a dead planet.

 

TEKCT

Переведите текст, обратите внимание на перевод предложения с оборотом “ there + be”. Опишите свой город, употребляя оборот.

 

Dear Nick. Thank you for your kind letter. How fine it is to get a letter from you here in Moscow very far from home. You are, certainly, right in what you say in your letter, though you are too kind when you speak of my talent for languages.

You ask me about Moscow. What is it like? It’s a difficult question to answer. It’s a very large city in territory as well as in people. There are over nine million people in Moscow. There are a lot of people everywhere in streets, busses, shops, offices.

As to architecture I don’t quite like the modern style, you know. There are lots of fine buildings and blocks here.

The centre of the city is extremely lovely. There were plenty of old streets and by-streets in old Moscow that remained till now. Perhaps, there is some harmony between old and modern in Moscow, but it doesn’t impress me much.

There are lots of schools, colleges and Institutes here. And there is the University as you know.

There are a lot of cinemas, theatres and museums in Moscow.There are certainly plenty of shops and stores as well. Moscow is a big construction site and soon will be many new districts. Each time I begin with "there is' and "there are". And what is "there is no" in Moscow, I wonder?

Perhaps there are no little houses, such as there are in our village. There are no such wonderful sun rises and sun sets as we have in our village, although I don't get up here as early as in the village and besides it’s winter time now.

In short, there are plenty of places to see and so little time to do it.

 

Sincerely yours,

Ann

 

 

МЕСТОИМЕНИЕ(The Pronoun)

 

Местоимение - это часть речи, которая употребляется вместо существительного или других частей речи, определяющих существитель­ное.

Местоимения делятся на следующие разряды:

 

Личные местоимения   Притяжательные местоимения
именительный падеж объектный падеж кого? Кому? зависимая форма чей? абсолютная форма
I - я you - ты he - он she - она it - он, она, оно (неодуш. предмет)   we - мы you - вы they - они me - мне, меня, you - тебе, тебя him - его, ему her - её, ей, ею it - его, её, ей, (неодуш. предмет)   us - нас you - вас them - их   my - мой(-я,-ё,-и) your - твой his - его her - её its - его, её (неодуш. предмет)   our - наш your - ваш their - их mine yours his hers   не употребляется   ours your theirs

 

Возвратно-усилительные местоимения

 

лицо единственное число множественное число
  1 лицо 2 лицо 3 лицо       myself - себя, я сам yourself - себя, ты сам himself - себя, он сам herself - себя, она сама itself - оно, само     ourselves - себя, мы сами yourselves - себя, вы сами themselves - себя, они сами

 

Examples: I’ll do it myself. - Я сделаю это сам.

John (he) asked himself. - Джон (он) спросил себя.

 

Указательные местоимения

 

единственное число множественное число
this - этот, эта, это that - тот, та, то   these - эти those - те

 

чтобы избежать повторения этого существительного (не переводится)

The work of a teacher and that of an engineer

Работа учителя и (работа) инженера.

 

Неопределенные местоимения

 

some какой-нибудь, некоторый, несколько, немного

any

no - никакой, ни один, нисколько

any – любой (в утвердительном предложении)

some и его производные употребляется в утвердительных пред­ложениях; any и его производные - в вопросительных и отрицательных; nо и его производные - в отрицательных предложениях.

one - обозначает неопределенное лицо (кто-либо, кто угодно), употребляется в качестве подлежащего безличного предложения.

If one promises…- если обещаешь, если обещать ...

One must plan one's work. - Нужно планировать свою работу.

One should do everything oneself. - Нужно всё делать самому.

Примечания: Слово-заместитель one употребляется вместо ранее

упомянутого существительного, чтобы избежать повторения. В отличие от неопределенного местоимения может употреб­ляться во множественном числе и перед ним может стоять артикль. One не переводится, или переводится "тот", или употребляется заменяемое существительное.

Modern cities and ancient ones- Современные города и древние.

This text is easier than the one I translated last time. -

Этот текст легче, чем тот, который я переводил в прошлый раз.

 

Местоимение It

 

Местоимение It в функции подлежащего переводится:

1) личными местоимениями "он", "она", "оно", если заменяет ранее
употреблявшееся существительное в зависимости от рода этого
существительного в русском языке:

There is a book on the table. It is interesting.

На столе лежит книга. Она интересная.

2) местоимением "это", если выполняет указательную функцию (можно заменить местоимением this):

It is a book. = This is a book. - Это - книга.

It не переводится, если:

1) является подлежащим безличного предложения:

It is necessary to read much - Нужно много читать.

2) является подлежащим усилительной конструкции it was ... who (that)

При переводе таких предложений употребляются слова: "именно", "только", "как раз»

It was he, who did this work. - Именно он сделал эту работу.

 

Exercises:

 

1. Замените выделенные слова местоимениями

1. The new power station is in the operation. I visited the new power station. 2. Petrov is a machine operator. We will know Petrov. 3. George worked at the Volkhov hydroelectric station. The station began to supply electricity in 1926. 4. My father liked his work and often spoke of his work. He remembered his comrades and told his son about his comrades. 5. This girl is our engineer. I work with this girl. 6. George and I are good sportsmen; you can often see George and me on the sporting grounds.

 

2. Переведите предложение. Выберите форму местоимения.

1. Students write (their, them) term-papers twice a year. 2. She works at (her, hers) graduation paper every day. 3. Speak to (him, his) about (me, my) term-paper. (Me, I) want to know what (he, him) thinks about (it, its). 4. A friend of (my, mine) is reading for (him, his) exam. 5. (We, our) have passed (our, ours) exams. Let (we, us) go to the cinema. 6. (Your, yours) faculty is more difficult than (our, ours).

 

3. Измените местоимения женского рода на мужской и переведите на русский язык.

1. She liked her subject and we liked her lessons. We listened to her very attentively, showed our notes to her and tried to answer all her questions. 3. We often ask her to recommend us some book on her subject and discussed it together with her after the lesson. 4. She was our teacher at school and we remember her, because her lessons were very interesting and we learned many useful things from her.

 

4. Поставьте личное местоимение, данное в скобках, в объектный падеж.

1. He is my friend. I know (he) well. 2. This engineer works with (I). 3. Her sister knows English and often helps (she). 4. There are many new words in the text. Learn (they) at home. 5. I often see (you) at the library. 6. This book is very useful. You must read (it). 7. On Sunday we shall go to the theatre. My brother will go with (we) too. 8. I work with my friends. I see (they) every day.

 

5. Заполните пропуски соответствующими притяжательными местоимениями.

1. I shall go to see ... parents in summer. 2. He will have ... vacation in February. 3. She has ... dinner at 3 o'clock. 4. This institute is very old. ... history is very interesting. 5. We like ... institute. 6. You will take ... exams in January. 7. They have ... practical training at the largest plants of the country. 8. In the morning my sisters take ... books and go to the Institute.

 

6. Заполните пропуски местоимениями в соответствующей форме по аналогии с первым предложением.

(I) My things belong to me. They are mine, I use them myself

(he) … notes belong to … . They are … , … made them… .

(she) … pencils belong to… . They are … , … buys them … .

(we) … books belong to … . They are … , … buy them … .

(you) … future belongs to … It is … , … plan it … .

(they) … projects belong to … They are … ,… worked at them …

 

7. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на возвратно-усилительные местоимения.

1. I can do it myself. 2. He has to do all the work himself. 3. She learns the language herself. 4. It speaks by itself. 5. We can't do the work ourselves. 6. Finish it yourself. 7. You can go there yourselves. 8. They can fasten the belts themselves.

 

8. Заполните пропуски соответствующими возвратно-усилительными местоимениями.

1. The student cannot solve this equation ... , we must show him how to do it. 2. An automatic machine-tool can do this work ... . 3. The tools ... are much smaller than the mechanism that direct them. 4. Must we take the measurements ... ? 5. I am able to complete this work … . 6. You may use this instrument for measuring gas pressure ... . 7. He can do this work ... . 8. The Moon ... doesn't light the Earth. 9. There are a number of automatic machine-tools that can measure and inspect their production ... . 10. They could easily define the properties of this material ... 11. You must not lift this heavy metal part ...

 

9. Переведите на английский язык; помните, что местоимения в объектном падеже не совпадают с притяжательными местоимениями в форме.

1. Их книги на столе; возьмите их. 2. Мы знаем ее: ее фамилия Иванова. 3. Его отец живет в нашем доме; я вижу его каждое утро. 4. Прочтите эту книгу; ее заглавие “ Ee жизнь”, я дам вам ее завтра. 5. Я знаю ее автора, его книги очень интересные. 6. Его друзья любят его. 7. Их институт недалеко от моего дома. Я часто вижу их на улице. 8. Они рассказали нам о нашем институте и его истории. 9. Они провели этот опыт сами. 10. Я перевела эту статью сама. 11. Это мой словарь, а тот ваш.

 

10. Укажите: а) в каких предложениях местоимения “it” не переводится, являясь подлежащим безличного предложения; б) где оно переводится местоимениями “он, она, оно” ( заменяет упомянутое существительное), “это”.

1. I don't like your room; it is dark. 2. It is dark in this room. 3. Don't drink the milk; it is cold. 4. It is interesting to read this book; it contains short fantastic stories. 5. It is difficult to learn the English language; it is quite different from Russian. 6. The teacher put another question, it wasn't easy. 7. It wasn't easy to answer the teacher's question. 8. We shall buy a map of this region, it will be necessary for every member of the expedition. 9. It will be necessary to have a map. 10. The traveler visited the native town; it was quite different now. 11. It was impossible to find the place of his house. 12. I want to have practice in English, it will be important for my work. 13. It will be important to practice in the laboratory. 14. It is easy to discuss this question. It is very simple. 15. It was important to solve this problem. It occupied all his thoughts for hours. 16. It is necessary to boil water for our experiment. Then it will be pure. 17. It was not easy to define the properties of this solid. It took much time. 18. It was said that the lecture on physics was very interesting today. 19. It took him some months to solve this problem. 20. It's farther to the Sun than to the Moon.

 

11. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на выделенную группу слов.

1. Shut the window, it is cold outsi


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